ALICA - A Language Interactive Cooperative Agents

ALICA is a behaviour specification language for teams of agents. It provides modeling elements to describe team behaviours and strategies from a global perspective.

Cooperative behaviour of agents within highly dynamic and nondeterministic domains is an active fi eld of research. In particular establishing highly responsive teamwork, where agents are able to react on dynamic changes in the environment while facing unreliable communication and sensory noise, is an open problem. Moreover, modelling such responsive, cooperative behaviour is difficult. ALICA is a novel model for cooperative behaviour geared towards highly dynamic domains. In this approach, agents estimate each other’s decision and correct these estimations once they receive contradictory information. We aim at a comprehensive approach for agent teamwork featuring intuitive modeling capabilities for multi-agent activities, abstractions over activities and agents, and a clear operational semantic for the new model.


ALICA and its corresponding software is available under the MIT License (if not stated otherwise) and can be downloaded from our GitHub profile.

The corresponding software components are separated into the following GitHub repositories:

Application Domains

ALICA was originally developed for the RoboCup Middle Size League. Meanwhile, it has approved its usability in various additional application domains.


Application Domain

Carpe Noctem Cassel

Robotic Soccer


Robotic Space Missions

Space Bot Cup

Robotic Space Missions

Cooperative Behaviours for Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous Driving

Audi Autonomous Driving Cup

Autonomous Driving


  • Opfer, Stephan ; Jakob, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: Reasoning for Autonomous Agents in Dynamic Domains: Towards Automatic Satisfaction of the Module Property. In: Agents and Artificial Intelligence. vol. 1 : Springer International Publishing, 2018 — ISBN 978-3-319-93581-2, p. 22--47
  • Nguyen Van, Thao ; Fredivianus, Nugroho ; Tran, Tam Huu ; Geihs, Kurt ; Binh Huynh, Thanh Thi: Formal Verification of ALICA Multi-agent Plans Using Model Checking. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Information and Communication Technology. Danang City, Viet Nam, 2018
  • Geihs, Kurt ; Witsch, Andreas: Decentralized decision making in adaptive multi-robot teams. In: it - Information Technology vol. 60 (2018), Nr. 4, pp. 239-248
  • Opfer, Stephan ; Jakob, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: Reasoning for Autonomous Agents in Dynamic Domains. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence: ICAART. vol. Volume 2. Porto, Portugal, 2017
  • Opfer, Stephan ; Niemczyk, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: Multi-Agent Plan Verification with Answer Set Programming. In: Proceedings ot the Third Workshop on Model-Driven Robot Software Engineering (MORSE16). Leipzig, Germany : ACM, 2016
  • Witsch, Andreas ; Geihs, Kurt: An Adaptive Middleware Core for a Multi-Agent Coordination Language. In: 2015 International Conference and Workshops on Networked Systems (NetSys) : IEEE, 2015, pp. 1-8
  • Saur, Daniel ; Geihs, Kurt: IMPERA: Integrated Mission Planning for Multi-Robot Systems. In: Robotics vol. 4 (2015), Nr. 4, p. 435
  • Saur, Daniel ; Haque, Tareq Rezaul ; Geihs, Kurt: Empirical study of planning and execution for large teams of robots. In: First Workshop on Model-Driven Robot Software Engineering at Software Technologies: Applications and Foundations. York, UK, 2014
  • Witsch, Andreas ; Opfer, Stephan ; Geihs, Kurt: A Formal Multi-Agent Language for Cooperative Autonomous Driving Scenarios. In: 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles & Expo (ICCVE 2014). Vienna, Austria, 2014
  • Saur, Daniel ; Geihs, Kurt: pRoPhEt MAS: Reactive Planning Engine For Multi-agent systems. In: 13th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems (IAS). Padova, 2014
  • Saur, Daniel ; Haque, Tareq Rezaul ; Herzog, Ralf ; Geihs, Kurt: MAGiC : Multi-Agent Planning using Grid Computing concepts. In: 12th International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation in Space. Montreal, 2014
  • Kirchner, Dominik ; Niemczyk, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: RoSHA: A Multi-Robot Self-Healing Architecture. In: Springer, ; Springer, (ed.) ; Springer, : RoboCup 2013: Robot Soccer World Cup XVII. RoboCup International Symposium (RoboCup-2013) : Springer, 2013, pp. 1-12
  • Witsch, Andreas ; Skubch, Hendrik ; Niemczyk, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: Using Incomplete Satisfiability Modulo Theories to Determine Robotic Tasks. In: IEEE International Workshop on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), 2013
  • Hoyer, Ralf ; Bartetzki, Andre ; Kirchner, Dominik ; Witsch, Andreas: Giving Robots a Voice: A Kineto-Acoustic Project. In: Third International Conference on Arts and Technology. Milano (Italy), 2013 — ISBN 978-3-642-37981-9
  • Opfer, Stephan: Grenzen von SROIQ bei der Unterstuetzung der Modellierung von Multi-Agenten-Plaenen. In: Informatik-Spektrum vol. 36, Springer Berlin Heidelberg (2013), Nr. 6, pp. 1-4
  • Geihs, Kurt: Self-Adaptivity from Different Application Perspectives. In: Lemos, R. ; Giese, H. ; Müller, H. A. ; Shaw, M. ; Lemos, R. ; Giese, H. ; Müller, H. A. ; Shaw, M. (eds.) ; Lemos, R. ; Giese, H. ; Müller, H. A. ; Shaw, M. : Software Engineering for Self-Adaptive Systems II. vol. 7475 : Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013 — ISBN 978-3-642-35812-8, pp. 376-392
  • Skubch, Hendrik: Solving Non-linear Arithmetic Constraints in Soft Realtime Environments. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. Trento, Italy : ACM, 2012 — ISBN 978-1-4503-0857-1, p. 67--73
  • Opfer, Stephan: Towards a Description Logic Support for ALICA. Kassel, University of Kassel, Master thesis, 2012
  • Skubch, Hendrik ; Wagner, Michael ; Reichle, Roland ; Triller, Stefan ; Geihs, Kurt: Towards a Comprehensive Teamwork Model for Highly Dynamic Domains. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence, 2010
  • Opfer, Stephan: Efficient Decision Making in ALICA. Kassel (2009)
  • Skubch, Hendrik ; Wagner, Michael ; Reichle, Roland: A Language for Interactive Cooperative Agents. : University of Kassel, 2009