# Energy and Thermodynamic Basics

 Module Title Energy and Thermodynamic Basics Competency Understanding basic physical concepts used in engineering Courses Title Teaching Method SWS Credits Performance requirements/Examination Thermodynamics Fundamentals lecture, exercise 2 2 midterm assignments (1/3)final exam (2/3) Heat Transfer Fundamentals lecture, exercise 4 4 midterm assignments (1/3)final exam (2/3) Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals lecture, exercise 4 4 midterm assignments (1/3)final exam (2/3) Semester winter Responsible El Alimi Site Monastir Lecturer(s) Abdelmajid JemniHabib Ben AissiaNaceur BorginiNaoual Daouas,Maher Ben ChiekhHacen DhahriKhalifa MejbriRamla Gheith Language English Workload 150 hours course attendance 100 hours self-study Credits 10 Recommended Qualifications - Learning Outcomes a) Thermodynamics FundamentalsAfter the successful participation in the course Thermodynamics Fundamentals the students are able to:know the basic concepts, principles and the properties of thermodynamics and thermodynamic equilibria of pure fluids and mixturescontrol the mass balance, energy and entropy and exergy analysis of thermodynamic systems and processesmaster the wet air diagram and unit operations of the air treatment.b) Heat Transfer FundamentalsAfter the successful participation in the course Heat Transfer Fundamentals the students are able to:know the basic concepts of thermal laws and identify the three ways of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)set equation and solve a simple problem of heat transfer in the case of regular geometries subjected to different types of boundary conditionsunderstand, model and control analytical and numerical techniques for solving heatconduction problemsdefine and implement a heat conduction equation problem and choose the appropriate method to solve and interpret the numerical results.c) Fluid Mechanics FundamentalsAfter the successful participation in the course Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals the students are able to:measure the pressure and the velocitycalculate hydrostatic strengthdetermine the velocity profiles (in a pipe and inside the boundary layer) and determine the friction forces. Contents a) Thermodynamics FundamentalsFundamentals of thermodynamic e.g. open and closed systems, steadystate processing, state of matter, heat, molecular agitations, ideal gases, real gases; thermodynamic properties (internal energy, enthalpy, free energy, free enthalpy, entropy, specific heat); first and second law of thermodynamics for a closed system; thermodynamic relations (Gibbs equations, Maxwell's equations, characteristic functions, general expressions of S, U and H, general relationship between Cp and Cv); thermodynamic equilibrium phases (chemical potentials); state equations applied to pure fluids (state equation of ideal gases); thermodynamics of mixtures (mixture of ideal gases, ideal solutions); first law of thermodynamics for open systems (mass and energy balance); second law of thermodynamics for open systems (entropy balance sheet); exergy analysis (generation of entropy and exergy destruction, application to steady flows and closed systems); gas turbine (operating principle, Brayton cycle, inverted Brayton cycle), steam turbine (block diagram, Rankine cycles); engines; refrigeration machines, single-stage and two-stage vapor compression (schematic diagrams, thermodynamic cycles in PH and TS diagrams, two-stage compression and expansion); cryogenic thermodynamic processes; liquefaction of air (Linde and Claude cycles); production of dry ice.b) Heat Transfer FundamentalsHeat transfer basics: specific terms (temperature, heat flux, heat, isothermal surfaces); thermo physical characteristics; heat transfer methods (mechanisms and Fourier's, Newton's and Stefan’s laws); simultaneous heat transfers.Problem resolution of heat transfer: heat balance concept; general equation of conduction; boundary conditions; electrical analogy; systems with internal heat source.Thermal fins study: introduction to the fins (applications, forms, materials, ... etc.); heat balance; performance and efficiency.Steady conduction: analytical solution of the Laplace equation; steady numerical methods.Unsteady conduction: dimensionless numbers (Biot and Fourier); thermally thin systems (low Biot); analytical and numerical methods.Introduction to convection: heat transfer by convection; the general equations of transfer; boundary layers.Forced convection: external flows; the experimental and theoretical methods; flow around a cylinder, sphere and a tube bundle; internal flows; hydrodynamic and thermal considerations; laminar flow in circular tubes; correlation for turbulent flow in circularand non-circular tubes.Natural convection: boussinesq Model; similarity; natural convection near a vertical wall; correlations for natural convection.c) Fluid MechanicsFluid specifications, dimensions and units; the basic law of the hydrostatic; the applications (pressure variation, measuring pressure, hydrostatic force on a surface); fluid kinematics; dynamics of perfect incompressible fluids (Bernoulli equation, applications e.g. speed measurement); Euler theorem; dynamic of real incompressible fluids (Couette experience, laminar viscous flow, Poiseuille flow); concept of loss and singular linear load; boundary layer (concept of the boundary layer, local and global equations of the boundary layer, characteristics of the boundary layer, accurate and approximate solutions of the boundary layer); similitude and dimensional analysis; dynamics of elastic fluids (unidirectional flow); shockwave. Media Black board and beamer, lectures and presentations, problem based teaching, experimental measurements, use of simple computer programs. Literature J. Morano, N. Shapiro, Fundamentals of Engineering ThermodynamicsMichael J. Moran, Howard N. Shapiro, Bruce R. Munson, David P. DeWitt, Introduction to Thermal Systems Engineering: Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.CENGEL Y.A. Heat Transfer : Practical Approach, McGraw-Hill, 1997Yunus Cengel, John Cimbala, Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, McGraw-Hill Higher Education