The relevance of non-state actors for individual climate protection activities and climate policy (NostaClimate)

Duration: November 2018 until October 2021

Project coordination: University of Kassel, Chair of Empirical Economic Research

Cooperation partners: ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research Mannheim, Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) Karlsruhe, University of Hamburg, University of Münster

Funding institution: Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), second phase of the funding priority "Economics of Climate Change" ("Ökonomie des Klimawandels")

Summary: The Paris Agreement comprises ambitious long-term climate goals and aims at limiting the global average temperature increase to well below 2°C above preindustrial levels. While most of the countries that have ratified the Paris Agreement also submitted nationally determined contributions (NDCs), it is unlikely that some major industrialized countries meet their pledges.  The gap between required and actual emission reductions suggests that national regulations are not sufficient, but have to be supplemented by additional voluntary climate protection activities. In this respect, non-state actors, besides state and individual actors, are expected to especially help bridging this gap.

The goal of this project is the examination of the potential influence of non-state actors in achieving the targets set up at the Paris Agreement. The project analyzes the potential influence of different non-state actors through the direct reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by additional voluntary climate protection activities, but especially through indirect reductions of greenhouse gas emissions through their influence on the acceptance of climate policy and on the climate protection activities of individual actors as well as the monitoring of climate protection activities of state and other non-state actors. Against this background, NostaClimate develops strategies that promote climate protection measures of non-state actors, that allow an improved monitoring, that enhance the individual acceptance of climate policy, and that increase individual climate protection activities by the use of norm-shaping by non-state actors and their leadership by example.

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Publications and papers:

Engler, Daniel, Elke D. Groh, Gunnar Gutsche, and Andreas Ziegler (2020), Acceptance of climate-oriented policy measures in times of the COVID-19 crisis, in revision for Climate Policy, previous version: MAGKS Discussion Paper No. 29-2020

Contact: Elke D. Groh (, Amantia Simixhiu (