Herschel

Herschels Teleskopspiegel
Komponenten des Herschel-Weltraumteleskops
Während seines Betriebs befand sich Herschel in einer Umlaufbahn um den Lagrange-Punkt L2

Das "Herschel Space Observatory" (nach dem Entdecker der Infrarotstrahlung Wilhelm Herschel) ist ein 3,4 Tonnen schweres, von der ESA entwickeltes Weltraumteleskop, das im Mai 2009 gestartet wurde. Herschel ist das erste Weltraumteleskop, das den gesamten Wellenlängenbereich vom fernen Infrarot bis zum Submillimeter-Bereich abdeckt, in dem ansonsten unsichtbare kalte und staubhaltige Regionen des Kosmos beobachtet werden können. Mit seinem Primärspiegel mit einem Durchmesser von 3,5 m (1,5 mal größer als der des Hubble Teleskops) kann Herschel fast 20 mal mehr Licht sammeln, als alle bisherigen Infrarot-Teleskope.

Zu den Hauptzielen von Herschel gehörten Untersuchungen zur:

  • Entstehung und Entwicklung von Galaxien, insbesondere entfernter junger Galaxien, die aufgrund ihres Staubgehalts hauptsächlich im fernen Infrarot ausstrahlen;
  • Entstehung und Entwicklung von Sternen, zum Beispiel durch großflächige Suche nach den frühesten Entwicklungsphasen der Sterne;
  • Physik und Chemie der interstellaren Materie;
  • Objekten in unserem Sonnensystem (Kometen und Planetenatmosphären).


Der Herschel-Satellit hat drei Instrumente an Bord:

  • HIFI (Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared): hochauflösendes Spektrometer (157–625 µm)
  • PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer): abbildendes Photometer/Spektrometer (57–210 µm)
  • SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Image Receiver): abbildendes Photometer/Spektrometer (200–670 µm)


Ende April 2013 wurde die Mission für beendet erklärt, da das zur Kühlung benötigte Helium aufgebraucht war, und der Satellit wurde auf einen heliozentrischen Orbit gebracht und im Juni 2013 abgeschaltet.

Als Co-Investigator des PRISMAS-Teams war Prof. Giesen an der Entdeckung neuer Moleküle im Weltall beteiligt. Die Forschungsergebnisse sind in einer Reihe von Publikationen dokumentiert:

Chemistry of C3 and carbon chain molecules in DR21(OH)*
B. Mookerjea, G. E. Hassel, M. Gerin, T. Giesen, J. Stutzki, E. Herbst, J. H. Black, P. F. Goldsmith, K. M. Menten, J. Krełowski, M. De Luca, T. Csengeri, C. Joblin, M. Kazmierczak, M. Schmidt, J. R. Goicoechea, and J. Cernicharo
Astronomy & Astrophysics, 546, A75 (2012)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Methanol as a probe of physical conditions in Orion KL
Wang, S. and Bergin, E. A. and Crockett, N. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Lis, D. C. and Pearson, J. C. and Schilke, P. and Bell, T. A. and Comito, C. and Blake, G. A. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Gupta, H. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Langer, W. D. and Latter, W. B. and Lord, S. D. and Maret, S. and Martin, P. G. and Melnick, G. J. and Menten, K. M. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 527, Art. No. A95 (2011)

Strong absorption by interstellar hydrogen fluoride: Herschel/HIFI observations of the sight-line to G10.6-0.4 (W31C)
Neufeld, D. A. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Phillips, T. G. and Lis, D. C. and de Luca, M. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Black, J. H. and Gerin, M. and Bell, T. and Boulanger, F. and Cernicharo, J. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Kazmierczak, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Geballe, T. R. and Giesen, T. and Godard, B. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gry, C. and Gupta, H. and Hennebelle, P. and Herbst, E. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and Martín-Pintado, J. and Menten, K. M. ...
Astron. Astrophys. 518, Art. No. L108 (2010)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Detection of hydrogen fluoride in absorption towards Orion KL
Phillips, T. G. and Bergin, E. A. and Lis, D. C. and Neufeld, D. A. and Bell, T. A. and Wang, S. and Crockett, N. R. and Emprechtinger, M. and Blake, G. A. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Comito, C. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Encrenaz, P. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Langer, W. D. and Latter, W. D. and Lord, S. D. and Maret, S. and Martin, P. G. and Melnick, G. J. and Menten, K. M. ...
Astron. Astrophys. 518, Art. No. L109 (2010)

Interstellar OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ along the sight-line to G10.6-0.4
Gerin, M. and de Luca, M. and Black, J. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Herbst, E. and Neufeld, D. A. and Falgarone, E. and Godard, B. and Pearson, J. C. and Lis, D. C. and Phillips, T. G. and Bell, T. A. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Boulanger, F. and Cernicharo, J. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Encrenaz, P. and Giesen, T. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Gry, C. and Hennebelle, P. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kazmierczak, M. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and Martin-Pintado, J. and Monje, R. and Mookerjea, ...
Astron. Astrophys. 518, Art. No. L110 (2010)

Herschel/HIFI observations of interstellar OH+ and H2O+ towards W49N: a probe of diffuse clouds with a small molecular fraction
Neufeld, D. A. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Black, J. H. and Pearson, J. and Yu, S. and Phillips, T. G. and Lis, D. C. and de Luca, M. and Herbst, E. and Rimmer, P. and Gerin, M. and Bell, T. A. and Boulanger, F. and Cernicharo, J. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Kazmierczak, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Geballe, T. R. and Giesen, T. and Godard, B. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gry, C. and Gupta, H. and Hennebelle, P. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L10 (2010)

Herschel observations of ortho- and para-oxidaniumyl (H2O+) in spiral arm clouds toward Sagittarius B2(M)
Schilke, P. and Comito, C. and Müller, H. S. P. and Bergin, E. A. and Herbst, E. and Lis, D. C. and Neufeld, D. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Cabrit, S. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Crockett, N. R. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Langer, W. D. and Latter, W. B. and Lord, S. D. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L11 (2010)

Detection of hydrogen fluoride absorption in diffuse molecular clouds with Herschel/HIFI: an ubiquitous tracer of molecular gas
Sonnentrucker, P. and Neufeld, D. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Gerin, M. and Lis, D. C. and de Luca, M. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Black, J. H. and Bell, T. A. and Boulanger, F. and Cernicharo, J. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Kazmierczak, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Geballe, T. R. and Giesen, T. and Godard, B. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gry, C. and Gupta, H. and Hennebelle, P. and Herbst, E. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and Martín-Pintado, J. and Menten, K. M. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L12 (2010)

Excitation and abundance of C3 in star forming cores. Herschel/HIFI observations of the sight-lines to W31C and W49N
Mookerjea, B. and Giesen, T. and Stutzki, J. and Cernicharo, J. and Goicoechea, J. R. and de Luca, M. and Bell, T. A. and Gupta, H. and Gerin, M. and Persson, C. M. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Makai, Z. and Black, J. and Boulanger, F. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Geballe, T. and Godard, B. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gry, C. and Hennebelle, P. and Herbst, E. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kazmierczak, M. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and Lis, D. C. and Martin-Pintado, J. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L13 (2010)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): detecting spiral arm clouds by CH absorption lines
Qin, S.-L. and Schilke, P. and Comito, C. and Möller, T. and Rolffs, R. and Müller, H. S. P. and Belloche, A. and Menten, K. M. and Lis, D. C. and Phillips, T. G. and Bergin, E. A. and Bell, T. A. and Crockett, N. R. and Blake, G. A. and Cabrit, S. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L14 (2010)

CH+ (1–0) and 13CH+ (1–0) absorption lines in the direction of massive star-forming regions
Falgarone, E. and Godard, B. and Cernicharo, J. and de Luca, M. and Gerin, M. and Phillips, T. G. and Black, J. H. and Lis, D. C. and Bell, T. A. and Boulanger, F. and Coutens, A. and Dartois, E. and Encrenaz, P. and Giesen, T. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Gry, C. and Hennebelle, P. and Herbst, E. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kazmierczak, M. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and Martin-Pintado, J. and Monje, R. and Mookerjea, B. and Neufeld, D. A. and Perault, M. and Pearson J. C., and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L15 (2010)

Interstellar CH absorption in the diffuse interstellar medium along the sight-lines to G10.6-0.4 (W31C), W49N, and W51
Gerin, M. and de Luca, M. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Herbst, E. and Falgarone, E. and Godard, B. and Bell, T. A. and Coutens, A. and Kazmierczak, M. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Black, J. H. and Neufeld, D. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Pearson, J. and Rimmer, P. B. and Hassel, G. and Lis, D. C. and Vastel, C. and Boulanger, F. and Cernicharo, J. and Dartois, E. and Encrenaz, P. and Giesen, T. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Gry, C. and Hennebelle, P. and Hily-Blant, P. and Joblin, C. and Kolos, R. and Krelowski, J. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L16 (2010)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The present and future of spectral surveys with Herschel/HIFI
Bergin, E. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Comito, C. and Crockett, N. R. and Lis, D. C. and Schilke, P. and Wang, S. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Bumble, B. and Caux, E. and Cabrit, S. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Daniel, F. and de Graauw, T. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Hartogh, P. and Helmich, F. P. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Kawamura, J. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L20 (2010)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): The Terahertz spectrum of Orion KL seen at high spectral resolution
Crockett, N. R. and Bergin, E. A. and Wang, S. and Lis, D. C. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Boogert, A. and Bumble, B. and Cabrit, S. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Comito, C. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Güsten, R. and Hartogh, P. and Helmich, F. and Herbst, E. and Honingh, N. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Karpov, A. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L21 (2010)

Herschel/HIFI measurements of the ortho/para ratio in water towards Sagittarius B2(M) and W31C
Lis, D. C. and Phillips, T. G. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Neufeld, D. A. and Herbst, E. and Comito, C. and Schilke, P. and Müller, H. S. P. and Bergin, E. A. and Gerin, M. and Bell, T. A. and Emprechtinger, M. and Black, J. H. and Blake, G. A. and Boulanger, F. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Coutens, A. and Crockett, N. R. and Daniel, F. and Dartois, E. and de Luca, M. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Geballe, T. R. and Godard, B. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L26 (2010)

Herschel observations of EXtra-Ordinary Sources (HEXOS): Observations of H2O and its isotopologues towards Orion KL
Melnick, G. J. and Tolls, V. and Neufeld, D. A. and Bergin, E. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Wang, S. and Crockett, N. R. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Cabrit, S. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Comito, C. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Falgarone, E. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Langer, W. D. and Latter, W. D. and Lis, D. C. and Lord, S. D. and Maret, S. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L27 (2010)

Herschel observations of deuterated water towards Sgr B2(M)
Comito, C. and Schilke, P. and Rolffs, R. and Lis, D. C. and Belloche, A. and Bergin, E. A. and Phillips, T. G. and Bell, T. A. and Crockett, N. R. and Wang, S. and Blake, G. A. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Daniel, F. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Gerin, M. and Giesen, T. F. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Herbst, E. and Joblin, C. and Johnstone, D. and Langer, W. D. and Latter, W. D. and Lord, S. D. and Maret, S. and Martin, P. G. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L38 (2010)

Nitrogen hydrides in interstellar gas. Herschel/HIFI observations towards G10.6-0.4 (W31C)
Persson, C. M. and Black, J. H. and Cernicharo, J. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Hassel, G. E. and Herbst, E. and Gerin, M. and de Luca, M. and Bell, T. A. and Coutens, A. and Falgarone, E. and Goldsmith, P. F. and Gupta, H. and Kazmierczak, M. and Lis, D. C. and Mookerjea, B. and Neufeld, D. A. and Pearson, J. and Phillips, T. G. and Sonnentrucker, P. and Stutzki, J. and Vastel, C. and Yu, S. and Boulanger, F. and Dartois, E. and Encrenaz, P. and Geballe, T. R. and Giesen, T. and Godard, B. and Gry, C. and Hennebelle, P. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L45 (2010)

Detection of OH+ and H2O+ towards Orion KL
Gupta, H. and Rimmer, P. and Pearson, J. C. and Yu, S. and Herbst, E. and Harada, N. and Bergin, E. A. and Neufeld, D. A. and Melnick, G. J. and Bachiller, R. and Baechtold, W. and Bell, T. A. and Blake, G. A. and Caux, E. and Ceccarelli, C. and Cernicharo, J. and Chattopadhyay, G. and Comito, C. and Cabrit, S. and Crockett, N. R. and Daniel, F. and Falgarone, E. and Diez-Gonzalez, M. C. and Dubernet, M.-L. and Erickson, N. and Emprechtinger, M. and Encrenaz, P. and Gerin, M. and Gill, J. J. and Giesen, T. F. and ...
Astron. Astrophys. 521, Art. No. L47 (2010)

Reversal of infall in SgrB2(M) revealed by Herschel/HIFI observations of HCN lines at THz frequencies
R. Rolffs, P. Schilke, C. Comito, E. A. Bergin, F. F. S. Van Der Tak, D. C. Lis, S.-l. Qin, K. M. Menten, R. Güsten, T. A. Bell, G. A. Blake, E. Caux, C. Ceccarelli, J. Cernicharo, N. R. Crockett, F. Daniel, M.-l. Dubernet, M. Emprechtinger, P. Encrenaz, M. Gerin, T. F. Giesen, J. R. Goicoechea, P. F. Goldsmith, H. Gupta, E. Herbst, C. Joblin, D. Johnstone, W. D. Langer, W. D. Latter, S. D. Lord, S. et al.
Astron. Astrophys. 521, L46 (2010)

Herschel/HIFI discovery of interstellar chloronium (H2Cl+)
D. C. Lis, J. C. Pearson, D. A. Neufeld, P. Schilke, H. S. P. Müller, H. Gupta, T. A. Bell, C. Comito, T. G. Phillips, E. A. Bergin, C. Ceccarelli, P. F. Goldsmith, G. A. Blake, A. Bacmann, A. Baudry, M. Benedettini, A. Benz, J. Black, A. Boogert, S. Bottinelli, S. Cabrit, P. Caselli, A. Castets, E. Caux, J. Cernicharo, C. Codella, A. Coutens, N. Crimier, N. R. Crockett, F. Daniel, K. Demyk, C. Dominic, M.-l. Dubernet, M. Emprechtinger, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, A. Fuente, M. Gerin, T. F. Giesen, J. R. Goicoechea, F. Helmich, P. Hennebelle, Th. Henning, E. Herbst, P. Hily-blant, Å. Hjalmarson, D. Hollenbach, T. Jack, C. Joblin, D. Johnstone, C. Kahane, et al.
Astron. Astrophys. 521, L9 (2010) 

Detection of interstellar oxidaniumyl: Abundant H2O+ towards the star-forming regions DR21, Sgr B2, and NGC6334
V. Ossenkopf, H. S. P. Müller, D. C. Lis, P. Schilke, T. A. Bell, S. Bruderer, E. Bergin, C. Ceccarelli, C. Comito,  J. Stutzki, A. Bacman, A. Baudry, A. O. Benz, M. Benedettini, O. Berne, G. Blake, A. Boogert, S. Bottinelli, F. Boulanger, S. Cabrit, P. Caselli, E. Caux, J. Cernicharo, C. Codella, A. Coutens, N. Crimier, N. R. Crockett, F. Daniel, K. Demyk, P. Dieleman, C. Dominik, M. L. Dubernet, M. Emprechtinger, P. Encrenaz, E. Falgarone, K. France, A. Fuente, M. Gerin, T. F. Giesen, A. M. Di Giorgio, J. R. Goicoechea, et al.
Astron. Astrophys. 518 L111 (2010)