Camera-SENSORSYSTEM for site-specific working depth control

goal of this project

Arbeitstiefe des Grubbers wird vom Kamera-Sensorsystem gesteuert.

The goal of this project is the development of a camera-sensor system for site-specific working depth control in conservation tillage (especially minimum tillage): A certain amount of straw is necessary to ensure a complete crop germination, at the same time sufficient soil cover leeds to erosion control.

This thesis is part of a joint research project with the objective to develop a site-specific tillage where the working depth of a cultivator is controlled depending on different soil properties and the amount of surface cover. The aim of this subproject was to provide a determination of the percent residue cover by means of fast image processing so that the tillage intensity can be adapted during field operation: A camera which is assembled to the front of the tractor observes the soil surface, the residue cover is determined and a signal for site-specific adjustment is given to a unit which controls the working-depth of a




Reflection Spectroscopic studies show a maximum difference between the intensity of various straw and soil samples in the near infrared (NIR).

Image Acquisition

(a) Aufnahme mit Schwarz/Weiss-C-MOS Kamera
(b) Selbe Kamera wie in (a) mit vorgeschaltetem Infrarotfilter. Man beachte den Weichzeichner-Effekt.

In this online approach, the image processing time must not exceed a value of about 1000 ms. Therefore, the image capturing conditions have to be optimized in such a way that a maximum of the desired informationshould be in the raw image.



image processing

(c) Algorithmus angewendet auf Bild (a)
(d) Selber Algorithmus angewandt auf (b), die weitgehende Unterdrückung der Feinstruktur der Bodenteile durch den Infrarotfilter führt zu einer besseren Erkennung der Strohbedeckung.

To determine the degree of soil cover an initial test algorithm has been developed using commercially available image processing software. The running time is 1000 ms.

The various straw coverings by shallow cultivation (about 5 cm)

0 kg/m² (nur Stoppel!)
0,3 kg/m²
Der Stoppelhobel

Veröffentlichungen im Rahmen des Forschungsprojektes

Online-measurement of percent residue cover for implement control in conservation tillage. XVI CIGR World Congress, Bonn 2006

Online-Messung des Bodenbedeckungsgrades. 4. Workshop Precision Farming, Hohenheim 2007

Entwicklung einer automatisierbaren Referenzmethode zur Bestimmung des Bodenbedeckungsgrades bei der Mulchsaat. Tagung Land.Technik, Hohenheim 2008

Artikel Neue Landwirtschaft 2/2010 

Development of an algorithm for online measurement of percent residue cover. Biosystems Engineering, Vol. 106(3), July 2010, 260-267

Entwicklung eines Online-Messverfahrens zur Bestimmung des Bodenbedeckungsgrades bei der Stoppelbearbeitung zu Mulchsaatverfahren, VDI-MEG 488, ISSN 0931-6264 (Dissertationsschrift, 2010)