Research projects

BMBF: Stadt-Land-Plus- Verbundvorhaben: CoAct - Integriertes Stadt-Land-Konzept zur Erzeugung von Aktivkohle und Energieträgern aus Restbiomassen

BMBF: "Stadt-Land-Plus- Verbundvorhaben: CoAct - Integriertes Stadt-Land-Konzept zur Erzeugung von Aktivkohle und Energieträgern aus Restbiomassen"

Laufzeit: Juli 2018 – Juni 2023

Weitere Informationen: 

Ansprechpartner: Prof. Dr. Wachendorf

BMBF: SYMOBIO - Systemisches Monitoring und Modellierung der Bioökonomie

BMBF: SYMOBIO – Systemisches Monitoring und Modellierung der Bioökonomie

Verbundprojekt zur Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen für ein systemisches Monitoring und die Modellierung der Bioökonomie (BÖ) in Deutschland. Unter BÖ versteht man den Teil der Wirtschaft, der biogene Produkte erzeugt, verarbeitet, konsumiert und verwertet: angefangen von der Landwirtschaft, Forstwirtschaft und Fischerei über die Verarbeitung von nachwachsenden Rohstoffen, die Nutzung biotechnologischer Verfahren oder das Möbelhandwerk bis zum Abfallmanagement und der Gewinnung von Bioenergie. 

Untersucht werden dabei die Umweltauswirkungen der Bioökonomie entlang der gesamten Produktionskette. Dazu werden die gesamte Ressourcennutzung, Umwelt- und Klimabelastungen durch die biobasierten Wirtschaftsbereiche und deren gesamte Wirtschaftsleistung erfasst und bilanziert. 

Das FG GNR arbeitet in zwei Arbeitspaketen mit zu den Themen „Nachhaltige landwirtschaftliche Anbausysteme zur Erzeugung von Rohstoffen für die Bioökonomie“ und „Fernerkundliche Abschätzung der Auswirkung einer Ausweitung der Biogaserzeugung auf die Diversität landwirtschaftlicher Anbausysteme“. 

Laufzeit: März 2017 – Februar 2020

Weitere Informationen: https://symobio.de/

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Rüdiger Graß

EU Interreg NWE: REgional Development and Integration of unused biomass wastes as REsources for Circular products and economic Transformation (RE-DIRECT)

RE-DIRECT is a holistic approach to promote the efficient use of natural resources and materials by converting residual biomass into carbon products and activated carbon at smart regional decentralised units.

The project involves 11 partners from BE, DE, FR, IR and the UK who will implement the approach in 5 urban, semi-urban and rural NWE regions. Each year at least 34 million t of residual biomass from the management of rural landscapes and urban greens in NWE are wasted. On the other hand, there is a growing market for sustainable and decentralised products such as active coal, used in sewage water technologies to clean water polluted with complex chemical substances or antibiotics.

RE-DIRECT will make use of the proven technology for Integrated Generation of Solid Fuel and Biogas from Biomass (IFBB) to convert 20 000 t of unused biomass in a circular economy approach into region specific carbon products, among them activated carbon. This will be achieved in the project lifetime by regional and interregional stakeholder communities (biomass waste producers, industries, SMEs, NGOs, researchers and regional interest groups) who explore, develop and manage region-specific product portfolios and create economic value chains in the framework of transferrable “integrated biomass concepts”. The project will develop one large scale investment for a biochar and activated carbon production at a urban biomass conversion centre in DE and one small conversion plant on farm scale in Wales; creating and securing 20 jobs in direct proximity to the plant and providing additional employment and income generating projects for disadvantaged society groups (unemployed and inhabitants in backward rural areas). Capacity building activities will be planned and delivered to support the implementation of the participatory and sustainable development projects and the creation of innovative product an value chains in the project regions and beyond.

Duration: 09/2016 - 09/2019

Funded by: Interreg North-West Europe

Further information: http://www.nweurope.eu/re-direct

Project homepage: www.re-direct-nwe.eu

Contact: Dr. Frank Hensgen

DBU: "Conservation and re-establishment of biodiversity in mountaineous semi-natural grasslands of the biosphere reserve "Rhön"- Management of an invasive Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.) in a complex nature conservation system

A continious and dramatic decline of biodiversity has been observed in european semi-natural grasslands. Major causes for this decline are the intensivation of agriculture or its abandonement. Especially the grasslands are threatened by abandonement and following succession with invasion of foreign plant species. The forage quality of the grassland silage is also negatively affected by the invasion of leguminous invasive palnt species such as the russels Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.). This plant has abilities that lead to an succesful invasion of semi-natural grasslands but also to permanent changes wihin the invaded ecosystems (fixation of nitrogen, changes in vegetational structure). Vegetation types of high nature value are especially threatened, such as mountaineous grasslands dominated by Nardus stricta or Trisetum flavescens

 

The project investigates the possibility of re-establishment of biodiversity in grasslands invaded by the lupine by removing the lupine and activating the seed- bank and apply mulched hay from biodivers donor areas. The patterns and processes of distribution of L. polyphyllus will be investigated on landscape scale. Furthermore the effects of different harvestd ates on the reduction of L. polyphyllus will be investigated as well as the usage of the harvested biomass in an innovative energy system. Modern remote sensing methods will be applied to monitor the effects of the different harvest regimes on the lupine. All results will be compiled and a prognosis model will be developed to predict the future distribution of the lupine in the biosphere reserve. A network will be founded together with experts from other regions and information material will be developed.

 

Professur für Landschaftsökologie und -planung (Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen)

 

Prof. Dr. Dr. habil. Dr. h.c. (TSU) Annette Otte

Dr. Kristin Ludewig

M.Sc. Yves Klinger

M.Sc. Wiebke Hansen

 

Professur für Grünlandwissenschaft und Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (Universität Kassel)

 

Prof. Dr. Michael Wachendorf

Dr. Frank Hensgen

Dr. Thomas Möckel

M.Sc. Damian Schulze-Brüninghoff

 

 

DFG Research Unit FOR2432/1 "Social-ecological Systems in the Indian rural-urban Interface: Functions, Scales, and Dynamics of Transition"

FOR 2432

Research questions

(1) How do agricultural production systems and household structures change at different stages of urbanisation?

(2) How does urban expansion affect the ability of regional ecosystems to provide food and other ecosystem services?

(3) How do exchange processes between agroecosystems, producers and consumers, or different social groups change as urbanisation advances?

(4) How do social and ecological systems interact where rural and urban livelihoods, traditions, aspirations, and forms of land use clash?

These research questions lead to the General Hypotheses which guide the work in Clusters A, B, and C.

Link: FOR 2432

BMEL: BOEL 2020 "Biogas im Ökolandbau - Substratbereitstellung nach 2020"

In der Ökologischen Landwirtschaft (ÖL) kann entsprechend der Richtlinien derzeit konventionelle Biomasse für die Biogaserzeugung zugekauft werden, z.B. Maissilage. Dies wird ab 2020 in vielen Verbänden der ÖL verboten werden. Daher ist es notwendig, andere Möglichkeiten der Biomasseerzeugung zu entwickeln, die nicht oder nur in geringer Konkurrenz zum Marktfrucht- oder Futterbau stehen, da diese weiterhin in der ÖL Priorität haben werden. In dem Forschungsvorhaben werden dazu drei Strategien mit jeweils mehreren Varianten hinsichtlich ihrer Wachstumsdynamik und ihrer Biomasseerträge beforscht:

1) Optimierter Zwischenfruchtanbau nach Druschfrucht: Sommergetreide Hafer in Rein- oder Gemengeanbau mit Leguminosen (Erbsen) zur Biogaserzeugung; Kleegras als Untersaat zur Biogaserzeugung

2)    Feldfutterbau: Nutzung des 3. und ggf.  4. Aufwuchses zur Biogaserzeugung – Kleegras, Luzernegras, Landsberger Gemenge

3)    Zweikulturnutzung zur Erzeugung von Ganzpflanzensilagen: wahlweise Nutzung von Erst (EK)- oder Zweitkulturen (ZK) für Futter- oder Biogaserzeugung; Kombinationen EK/ZK: Roggen-Wintererbsen/Mais,Triticale-Wintererbsen/Hafer, Roggen/Kleegras.

Ferner werden Qualitäts- und Biogasparameter erhoben bzw. kalkuliert und Synergieeffekte hinsichtlich Gewässer-, Boden- und Klimaschutz sowie der Stickstofffixierung evaluiert.

Die Feldversuche am Standort Neu-Eichenberg werden über drei Vegetationsperioden durchgeführt.

Laufzeit: Okt. 2016 - Dez. 2019

Gefördert durch das BMEL über den Projektträger FNR.

Weitere Infos in der Projektdatenbank der FNR:

http://biogas.fnr.de/index.php?id=11390&fkz=22020115

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Rüdiger Graß, rgrass@uni-kassel.de

BMBF: SIGNAL - Sustainable intensification of agriculture through agroforestry

Sustainable intensification of agriculture through agroforestry 

The joint project SIGNAL is part of the research program BonaRes (“Soils as Sustainable Resource for the Bioeconomy“) funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) with a planned duration of up to 9 years. The main objectives of SIGNAL are the long-term investigation of the effects of agroforestry systems on the biological functions of the soil, the rhizosphere, the above ground matter fluxes and the water use efficiency of the soil. The research approaches are based on the key hypothesis, that innovative land use systems linking the cultivation of trees or shrubs with crops or grasses (agroforestry) promote ecological, economic and cultural ecosystem services compared to conventional cultivation systems.

As part of SIGNAL, the responsibility of the Grassland Science and Renewable Plant Resources group at the University of Kassel/Witzenhausen is the evaluation of the effects of different management strategies on the above ground matter fluxes in the agroforestry. The study sites have already been established in 2011 within the framework of the cooperative research project “Boosting Bioenergy-Regions (BEST) - New System Solutions in the Divergence of Ecological, Economical and Social Demands”. Those agroforestry sites in conjunction with the findings from the BEST research activities provide a good basis and the capacity to answer the research questions posed by SIGNAL. The study sites are located in the south of Lower Saxony, Germany and occupy an area of approximately 1.3 hectare

The agroforestry system consists of alternating, 80 meter long rows of willow and grassland strips each in a threefold repetition. The grassland strips are 9 meter wide and cultivated with three different seed mixtures, namely pure grass, clover-grass and a biodiversity mixture containing of 32 mostly herbaceous species. Different management strategies of the grassland include 2 and 4 cuts per year.

The grassland strips alternate with 7 meter wide strips of willows ((Salix viminalis x Salix Schwerinii) x Salix viminalis = breeding Tora x Z. Ulv), which are characterized by their bushy growth making this willow variety particularly suitable for short rotation coppice. The trees have a rotation period of 3 years and the first willow clearance was in winter 2014/2015. During the first rotation period the agroforest showed no significant economic benefits compared to conventional systems, which was expected due to the short-term establishment of the system (see references).  Thus, in the following years research is mainly interested in the middle- and long-term increase of biomass and its associated profitability. Besides the economic potential of the agroforestry system the project aims to investigate the long-term effects of short rotation coppice wood under different use intensities of grassland in relation to various seeding mixtures on ecological parameters like the fixation of nitrogen and phosphate, the availability of nutrients and the water use efficiency of the soils. These objectives are accomplished in close cooperation with the pedological partners of SIGNAL. Long-term findings are crucial for optimizing the design and management of such systems and to provide incentives for farmers to change conventional land use to ensure a sustainable and efficient use of the limited resources soil and land.

Contacts

Dr. Rüdiger Graß

Steinstaße 19

37213 Witzenhausen, Germany

Phone: +49 561 804-1312

Sarah Malec

Steinstraße 19

37213 Witzenhausen, Germany

Phone.: +49 561 804- 1338

Links

BonaRes

http://www.bonares.de/

SIGNAL

http://www.signal.uni-goettingen.de/

BEST

http://best-forschung.uni-goettingen.de/

Funded by

German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF)

References

Ehret M., Bühle L., Graß R., Lamersdorf N., Wachendorf M. (2015): Bioenergy provision by an alley cropping system of grassland and shrub willow hybrids: biomass, fuel characteristics and net energy yields. Agrofor. Syst. 89, 365-381

Ehret M., Graß R., Wachendorf M. (2015): The effect of shade and shade material on white clover/perennial ryegrass mixtures for temperate agroforestry systems. Agrofor. Syst.: DOI 10.1007/s10457-015-9791-0