Vehicle Control and Mobility

Assistenzsystem nutzt Belegungsdaten für individuelle Empfehlungen

U-hoch-3: Unbeschwert urban unterwegs

Die Steigerung der Attraktivität öffentlicher Verkehrsmittel (ÖV) ist eine zentrale Komponente zur Verbesserung der Lebensqualität im urbanen Raum. Zwei Drittel der zurückgelegten Wege in Kernstädten entfallen auf Freizeitaktivitäten, Einkauf und private Erledigungen, wobei der ÖV-Nutzung oft der unbequeme Transport von Ein-käufen oder Gepäck sowie die Unsicherheit bzgl. verfügbarer Sitzplätze und des Erreichens von Anschlüssen entgegenstehen.

Deshalb wird in diesem vom Fachgebiet Mensch-Maschine-Systemtechnik koordinierten Projekt ein Assistenzsystem konzipiert, das den Nutzer bedarfsgerecht entlang seiner Reisekette unterstützt. Neben der intermodalen Reiseplanung bietet es einen innovativen innerstädtischen Lieferdienst, der mit Gepäckabgabe, Transport und Zustellung die gesamte Lieferkette abdeckt. Gemeinsam mit innerstädtischen Verkehrsdienstleistern wird die Erfassung und Echtzeit-Bereitstellung von Belegungsdaten evaluiert, deren Berücksichtigung neue individuelle Adaptionsmöglichkeiten schafft. Weiterhin wird eine Anschlusssicherung konzipiert, die dem Kunden verlässliche Informationen zur Anschlusserreichung bereitstellt und durch Anmeldung von Anschlusswünschen die Sicherstellung durch die Verkehrsdienstleister ermöglicht.
Das Assistenzsystem bietet eine integrierte Lösung für die getrennte Personen- und Gepäckbeförderung und integriert Daten zu Belegung und Anschlüssen, die bisher nicht in Echtzeit bereitgestellt werden.

Am Projekt beteiligte Wissenschaftler

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ludger Schmidt


Fachgebiet Verkehrsplanung und Verkehrssysteme der Universität Kassel

Förderung und Laufzeit

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, 12 / 2017 - 11 / 2018

Weitere Informationen zum Projekt

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virtual guidance when changing trasportation means: green lines guide the traveller. Triggered by a delay, the support system adapts the chain of transportation means and tries to keep the coffee break desired by the user

RadAR+: Travel Assistance System for Dynamic Environments based on Augmented Reality

The goal of RadAR+ is to develop a personal, adaptively learning travel assistance system for public transport passengers. The system helps users to orientate and to navigate, in particular when changing the means of transport, as well as to reduce stress and mental load throughout the journey. Users are provided with relevant information, i.e. information that is useful on the individual trip and in the current situation. The system captures its user’s actions and needs autonomously, utilizes external real-time data, e.g. on delays, and integrates all information into its travel plans. It collects, filters, and analyzes knowledge about the user locally and tailors its suggestions to individual habits and needs, such as slower moving patterns of the older or physically impaired users. The system uses augmented reality technologies to display information in smart glasses as well as speech recognition for interaction, resulting in a hands-free interface which is easy and intuitive to use.

The project consortium consists of research, development, and application partners bringing together competences in the areas of mobility, augmented reality, speech-based user interfaces, human-computer interaction, and user modeling. The Human-Machine Systems Engineering Group is responsible for the human-centered design of the system. In all phases from preliminary design to final evaluation, users will be involved. Thus, necessary adjustments to user expectations can be identified in early design phases to guarantee the highest level of usability and user acceptance of the technical solution.

Participating Scientists

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ludger Schmidt
Dipl.-Inf. Jens Hegenberg
Elisa Klose, M. Sc
Nils Mack, M. Sc.


House of Logistics & Mobility (HOLM) GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Fraunhofer-Institute for Material Flow and Logistics (IML), Prien am Chiemsee, Germany
HaCon Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hannover, Germany
Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund Servicegesellschaft mbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Ubimax GmbH, Bremen, Germany
voiceINTERconnect GmbH, Dresden, Germany
Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund GmbH, Hofheim am Taunus, Germany
Fraport AG, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Support and Duration

Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), 1 / 2016 - 6 / 2019

Further Information about this Projekt

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E2V project logo

E2V: Elektromobility with semi-autonomous Vehicles

The two-wheel electromobile E2V provides mobility in areas not covered by current public transport facilities, such as parks, airports, pedestrian areas. It aims on people without previous training, facing such a vehicle for the first time and also, possibly, limited in physical motility and geographical mobility. Additionally, the first application scenario is based on tourists interested to explore unknown territory and receiving information about this area. Acceptance and safe use by such persons requires simple, intuitive handling as well as the provision of operational, navigational, and tourism information, in particular

  • tourism-related information for the user such as advice, graphics, background information, tailored to the individual needs, presented at the right time or in the appropriate geographical position;
  • operational relevant information for user such as vehicle handling, rental conditions, traffic rules, area boundaries, or security aspects issued on request, when necessary, or in case of misuse;
  • information about all vehicles, like positions, status, users’ support needs, displayed in a fleet operation centre.

Initially, information needs of future users and operators are determined, followed by defining the appropriate representation and implementing the results as prototypes. Finally, the success is demonstrated under user and operator participation. Likewise, the acceptance of this new traffic concept is examined in the end.

Participating Scientists

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ludger Schmidt
Rolf Braun, M. Sc.
Benjamin Strenge, M. Sc.


University of Kassel
     Fachgebiet Anlagen und Hochspannungstechnik
     Fachgebiet Elektrische Energieversorgungssysteme
     Fachgebiet Fahrzeugsysteme und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik
     Fachgebiet Leichtbau-Konstruktion
     Fachgebiet Mensch-Maschine-Systemtechnik
EAM GmbH & Co. KG, Kassel
FINE Mobile GmbH, Rosenthal
Hella KGaA Hueck & Co., Lippstadt
Ernst Hombach GmbH & Co. KG, Uehlfeld
Hymer Leichtmetallbau GmbH & Co. KG, Wangen
Krebs & Aulich GmbH, Derenburg

Support and Duration

Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), 8 / 2011 - 10 / 2014

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Video Recording while Touching a Screen

EmLE: Development of Mass-Market AC and DC Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles

According to plans of the Federal Government of Germany, in 2020 more than one million electric vehicles shall travel on German roads. Thus, the creation of an infrastructure of charging stations providing electric energy at public or private parking places is essential. But in particular for these charging stations, currently no mass-market solutions do exist. Those solutions presented as example studies, during exhibitions, or on the Internet are usually first design attempts by companies whose core business never was the development of such stations. They either look like switching cabinets or like designer furniture, often combined with limited usability.

This project will develop charging stations in a user-oriented design process to ensure not only technical functionality and compliance with safety standards, but in particular a high degree of usability. The process commences with user- and task-oriented requirements analyses and the definition of usage scenarios by the Systems Engineering and Human-Machine Systems Group. Conceptual solutions will be developed according to anthropometric, perceptual, and cognitive ergonomic aspects along with support functions for the human-machine interaction. The solutions will be harmonized among project partners and implemented as prototypes, so that the user interaction with these prototypes allows for early feedback to the development process.

Field tests and laboratory studies will evaluate benefit, acceptance, and usability and thus obtain scientifically sound criteria for charging stations for the broad public. The consortium will provide first results on the HANNOVER MESSE industrial fair 2012. The start of series production is scheduled for 2013 already.

Participating Scientists

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ludger Schmidt 
Dipl.-Ing. Michael Domhardt 


Fachgebiet Leichtbau-Konstruktion of the University of Kassel, Germany
Plug‘n Charge GmbH, Bad Emstal, Germany
SEM-Schnellladung Elektro Mobilität GmbH & Co. KG, Bad Emstal, Germany
Institute of Industrial Design, Hochschule Darmstadt - University of Applied Sciences, Darmstadt, Germany
Technical Control Association in the State of Hesse (TÜV Hessen GmbH), Kassel, Germany

Support and Duration

Program for Excellence in Research and Development (LOEWE - Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-ökonomischer Exzellenz), State of Hesse, 4 / 2011 - 5 / 2012

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aircraft tail and Taxiway (c) B. Borys
aircraft tail and Taxiway (c) B. Borys
Checklist "Generator Fault"
Checklist "Generator Fault"

New Technologies in Aircraft Cockpits

Future Air Traffic Control, New Systems, and Technologies Impacts on Cockpit (FANSTIC)

Future Air Traffic Management, New Systems, and Technologies Integration in Cockpit (FANSTIC II)

The main goals of FANSTIC were to increase airspace while maintaining or improving safety level, optimization of pilots' workload, and reduction of the operating cost and, thus, improving the position of Europe in the competition of the aircraft manufacturers. This was achieved by cooperation of 19 partners from Europe and a support of 7.6 million ECU from the European Union.

In the phase I, the FANSTIC team in Kassel was responsible for task analyses in cockpits and research into manual control systems of aircraft. In the phase II we led the Human Factors subtask (Subtask 2.3) investigating the influence of future technologies and procedures in the air traffic management (ATM).

It was expected, that the number of the aircraft movements from 1988 until the year 2000 will have doubled and will have even quadrupled up to the year 2015. European air space almost reached its capacity limits already at that time. In order to keep the level of security, regularity, and on-schedule performance of air traffic despite the expected increase, aviation authorities had to implement new operating procedures and mandatory use of new technology. Air Traffic Control (ATC) was replaced by Air Traffic Management (ATM). Systems were in preparation, which guide regular and conflict-free traffic automatically. Vertical and lateral flight planning with tolerances below a minute as well as continuous data exchange should as far as possible avoid or timely predict conflicts. Only the resolution of the remaining conflicts is left to air traffic controllers. However, despite new technologies, the human had to keep the key position in air traffic and the final authority must remain with the pilot, supported by automated systems at the ground and in air.

Subtask 2.3 of FANSTIC II examined pilot behaviour and new function distributions for this future situation. Coordinated by our laboratory, we worked together with Airbus Industries Training (F), Aérospatiale (F), the Sowerby Research Centre of British Aerospace (UK), CENA (F), Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus (D), Fokker (NL) and NLR (NL). Implications of different function distributions between pilots and controllers as well as between humans and automated systems were examined in experiments in our laboratory.

In another subtask of the project, our laboratory developed the Procedural Display System (ProDS). It supports the pilots in completing checklists and is characterised by a new visual representation and a direct manipulation on a touch sensitive screen.

Still today, FANSTIC is seen as a milestone in European aeronautics research.

Participating Scientists

Univ.-Professor Dr.-Ing. Dr. h. c. Gunnar Johannsen
Dr.-Ing. Bernd-Burkhard Borys
Dr.-Ing. Jörg-O. Hartz
Dipl.-Ing. Sunjay Dussoye
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Tiemann


Among 19 industrial and academic partners in the consortium, we directly collaborated with

Airbus Industries Support and Training, Blagnac, France
Aérospatiale, Toulouse, France
British Aerospace Sowerby Research Centre, United Kingdom
Centre d'études de la navigation aérienne (CENA), Toulouse and Orly, France
Daimler-Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg, Germany
Fokker Aircraft BV, Oude Meer, The Netherlands
Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium (NLR), The Netherlands
VDO Luftfahrtgerätewerk, Frankfurt, Germany
Sextant Avionique, Saint Médard en Jalles, France
Smith Industries, Bishops Cleeve, United Kingdom
ALENIA Aeronautica, Pomigliane dell’Arco, Italy
CAPTEC, Dublin, Ireland
Space Applications Services (SAS), Zaventem, Belgium

Support and Duration

BRITE-Programme (Basic Research in Industrial Technologies in Europe) of the European Union
FANSTIC 1990-1991
FANSTIC II 1993-1995

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Flight Simulator for Development of a Fault-Tolerant Control System

Fault-Tolerant Control System

Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Fault-Tolerant Control System for Aircraft Applications (Entwicklung und experimentelle Bewertung eines fehlertoleranten Bediensystems für die Flugführung)

This project, supported by the German Research Foundation DFG, designed a model for the tasks performed by an aircraft pilot. This model runs in parallel to manual operation and checks consistency of the pilot`s inputs. The pilot is also able to transfer execution of single tasks to the model, thus, choosing the level of automation.

This system was implemented in a flight simulator and experimentally evaluated by airline pilots using a navigation task. The influence of the Fault-Tolerant Control System on the reported subjective workload of the pilot and the frequency of operating errors was examined.

Participating Scientists

Dr.-Ing. Christian Heßler
Dr. phil. Dipl.-Psych. Rainer Ridlhammer
Univ.-Professor Dr.-Ing. Dr. h.c. Gunnar Johannsen

Support and Duration

German Research Foundation (DFG), 1988 - 1990

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