Events

Standard Architecture. From Durand to BIM

Symposium Friday 20th Oct. - Sunday 22nd Oct. 2017

Deutsches Architekturmuseum Frankfurt am Main
Schaumainkai 43
60596 Frankfurt/Main

Standardization has played a key role in architecture and construction since the Enlightenment. It accelerates building production, reduces costs, and assures quality control, at least in theory. The classical modernists of the twentieth century treated standardization and normalization as engines of social and technical progress. Despite claims to cultural specificity, standards continue to shape processes and products all around the world through the formalization of cognitive and material processes. This symposium event will trace the development of standardization in architecture over the last two hundred and fifty years; with this as a basis, it will also address contemporary developments such as BIM (Building Information Modelling). With a focus on how standards influence or shape the design process, the symposium is organized in thematic sessions.

Standardized Design Processes

Modernity has given rise to processes that rationalize, systematize, and accelerate the designing of buildings. More structures need to be built more quickly all the time. Designs are often executed by unskilled or semi-skilled workers. Buildings are being erected in disparate places around the world through the use of identical specifications. To make all this possible, design tools have been created that enable people to generate and implement a great number of design-related tasks simultaneously.

Today, Building Information Modeling Systems (BIM) use standardized forms of information to automate planning and design and to supplement human with artificial forms of intelligence.


Standardized Building Elements 

Ernst Neufert tried to standardize architecture at all scales, from the very small to the very big. Adopting paper formats as his model, he sought to systematize building components using (among other means) his octametric system of dimensional coordination. This project reached its climax in the 1970s, but lost a good deal of its currency in the years thereafter. Today, there are more standards than ever—and they often operate on a national and international level—but their influence on form-making has proven harder to trace. It goes without saying that they continue to shape the design of spaces that have a great number of technical needs and requirements (kitchens and offices, for example), as well as temporary buildings and storage facilities (containers and container ports, for example).  

Standardized Building Processes
While knowledge rested squarely with the individual producer in pre-modern societies, it can be said that it is anchored today in objectified rules and specifications, many of which are sanctioned by liability concerns and multi-national contractual agreements. Arguably, standardization ensures that products that are manufactured by different companies are in fact compatible. This is important where the manufacturing of building components is concerned.  According to some, however, it can also stifle innovation and compromise the exercise of know-how and common sense. 

Drawing on the results of the symposium, ARCH+ will publish a special issue dedicated to the topic.

Friday, 20 October 2017

10.00 a.m.    Welcome: Peter Schmal, Director DAM; Prof. Philipp Oswalt, Universität Kassel, Department of Architectural Theory and Design

10.15 a.m.    On the ambivalence of standards. From normality to norm and back again? Robert Kaltenbrunner, BBR

Young Researcher Forum
1. Standardized Construction

10:45 a.m.    Beaux-Arts Esperanto: Toward a Universal Language of Global Polity, c. 1913. David Bijan Sadighian, M.A., Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, History of Art and Architecture, Cambridge

11:05 a.m.    The industrial treatise: how nineteenth-century pocketbooks built the architect. Eric Carver, M.Arch., M.Phil., 
Columbia University, History and Theory, New York City

11:25 a.m.    Coffee break


11:50 a.m.    The Standard Vernacular: Processes and Practices Beyond the Plan Factory.
Paula Lupkin, PhD, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, Department of Art Education and Art History

12:10 p.m.    Vyacheslav Oltarzhevksky’s 1947 Dimensional Handbook for the Architect: Espionage and Reconstruction in the USSR. 
Samuel Delehanty Omans, M.A., Spitzer School of Archi-tecture, City College New York and Institute of Fine Arts, New York Uni-versity, New York City

12:30 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Kilian Enders and Nader Vossoughian

1:00 p.m. – 2:00 p.m. Lunch break

2. Standardized Planning

2:00 p.m.    Standardizing the Business of Building: Management and Marketing in The Architect’s Handbook, 1963–1988. 
Michael Abrahamson, M.Arch.S. in Criticism, Taubman College 
of Architecture and Urban Planning, History and Theory of Architecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

2:20 p.m.    Experimental school construction and the logic of the grid. The schools of Jean Prouvé after 2nd World War. 
Adrian Leander Pöllinger, MSc., Eidgenössische -Technische Hochschule Zürich

2:40 p.m.    Cold War Prefabrication Fever. Juliana Kei, M.Arch., School of Humanities, Royal College of Art, History of Desgin, London

3:00 p.m.    Standardizing Jurisdictional Interlock: Prefabricated Steel Houses, Labor, and Automation in Postwar America, 1943–1968. Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió, M.A., M.Phil., Columbia University, Architecture History and Theory, New York City

3:20 p.m.    Open Prefabrication / Open Specification: Freedom for Aesthetic Concerns, or Freedom from Social Liability? 
Tijana Stevanović, M.A., Grad.Eng.Arch. (MArch), School of Architecture, University for the Creative Arts, Bartlett School 
of Architecture, University College London, History and Theory

3:40 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Philipp Oswalt and Jan Bovelet

4:45 p.m.    Coffee break

3. Effects and Deviations

5:20 p.m.    Minimal Standards: the South African Building Research Institute and the NE-51/6 House, 1947–1952. Rixt Woudstra, M.A., History, Theory and Criticism of Architecture, MIT, Cambridge

5:40 p.m.    Deviations from a standard: exposing a greenboard ceiling at the McCormick Tribune Campus Centre. Mhairi McVicar, PhD, Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Cardiff

6:00 p.m.    Germany’s most normal town. 
Dipl.-Ing. Marcin Daniel Ganczarski, M.Phil., ETH Zürich

6:20 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Philipp Oswalt and Jan Bovelet

 

Saturday, 21 October 2017

9:30 a.m.    Introduction: * Philipp Oswalt, Universität Kassel, 
Department of Architectural Theory and Design

1. Designing Standardized
A. Historical Foundations

10:00 a.m.    The Introduction of Standard Systems of Measurement 
in the Enlightenment. Dr. Aashish Velkar, University of 
Manchester, Economic History

10:30 a.m.    Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand’s Development of Standard Types. Prof. Dr. Antoine Picon, Harvard University, GSD, 
Director of Research

11:00 a.m.    The DIN Format. * Prof. Dr. Markus Krajewski, University of Basel, Professor of Media Studies

11:30 a.m.    Coffee break

11:45 a.m.    Processes of Standardization / Standardizing 
the Standard (History of DIN). * Dr.-Ing. Matthias Witte, DIN-Normenausschuss Bauwesen

12:15 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Prof. Philipp Oswalt and 
Christa Kamleithner, Institute for Art History and Historical Urban Studies UdK

1:15 p.m.    Lunch break

B. From Neufert to BIM

2:30 p.m.    Rapid Design with Ernst Neufert. * Dr. Gernot Weckherlin, G-Prof. BTU Cottbus, Architectural Theory

3:00 p.m.    Expert systems. * Prof. Dr. Christian Kühn, TU Wien, 
Department of Building Theory and Design

3:30 p.m.    BIM—the architect’s perspective. * Dr. Alexander Rieck, Lava Architects Stuttgart

4:00 p.m.    Standardization by Scripting. * Prof. Thomas Auer, TU München / Transsolar

4:30 p.m.    Coffee break

5:00 p.m.    BIM—the engineer’s perspective. * Prof. Manfred Grohmann, Universität Kassel / Bollinger + Grohmann Ingenieure

5:30 p.m.–6:30 p.m. Discussion. * Moderation: Jan Bovelet and Kilian Enders

Sunday, October 22, 2017

2. Building standardized
A. Standardized Building Elements

9:30 a.m.    Ernst-Neufert and the Octametric System. Prof. Dr. Nader Vossoughian, New York Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Design

10:00 a.m.    Standardization in hospital design and construction. * Prof. Christine Nickl-Weller, TU-Berlin, Nickel-Architekten, München

10:30 a.m.    The Normed Office. Hyun-Tae Jung, Assistant Professor at Lehigh University

11:00 a.m.    Coffee break

11:30 a.m.    Fritz Haller and Total Planning. * Prof. Dr. Georg Vrachliotis, KIT-Karlsruhe, Architectural Theory

12:00 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Kilian Enders and Christa Kamleithner

1:00 p.m.    Lunch break

B. Standardized Processes

2:00 p.m.    The Container Principle. * Alexander Klose, Berlin

2:30 p.m.    Standards and regulations in the design of innovative 
facades. * Prof. Dr. Daniel Pfanner, University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt / Main

3:00 p.m.    Standardization on Site: skill and the construction process in mid-twentieth century Britain. Dr. Christine Wall, 
University of Westminster, Centre for the Study of the Production 
of the Built Environment

3:30 p.m.    Coffee break

4:00 p.m.    Failed Standards: The Case of Grenfell towers
. Samuel Webb, Royal Institute of British Architects

4:30 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Jan Bovelet and Philipp Oswalt

5:30 p.m.    Break

6:00 p.m.    Standardized thinking? Introductory notes: Georg Augustin
The presentation will be followed by a discussion with Ministerialdirektorin Monika Thomas (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit), 
Prof. Manfred Grohmann, and Prof. Dr. Antoine Picon. 
Moderators: Kilian Enders, Philipp Oswalt

Contributions in German (marked by *) are simultaneously translated to English.
Extended and up-to-date informations at: www.uni-kassel.de/go/standard

Admission fees: day ticket 20€, conference ticket 50 €. Free admission for students (standing room tickets), Booking and reservation: Sekretariat Fachgebiet Architekturtheorie und Entwerfen, contact: weckmann@asl.uni-kassel.de

Host: Department of Architectural Theory and Design, University of Kassel 
in cooperation with ARCH+ and project bauhaus
Supported by Forschungsinitiative Zukunft Bau – BBSR / BMUB (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung / Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG, Wüstenrot Stiftung and Pfeiffer Stiftung


Today, Building Information Modeling Systems (BIM) use standardized forms of information to automate planning and design and to supplement human with artificial forms of intelligence.


Standardized Building Elements 

Ernst Neufert tried to standardize architecture at all scales, from the very small to the very big. Adopting paper formats as his model, he sought to systematize building components using (among other means) his octametric system of dimensional coordination. This project reached its climax in the 1970s, but lost a good deal of its currency in the years thereafter. Today, there are more standards than ever—and they often operate on a national and international level—but their influence on form-making has proven harder to trace. It goes without saying that they continue to shape the design of spaces that have a great number of technical needs and requirements (kitchens and offices, for example), as well as temporary buildings and storage facilities (containers and container ports, for example).  

Standardized Building Processes
While knowledge rested squarely with the individual producer in pre-modern societies, it can be said that it is anchored today in objectified rules and specifications, many of which are sanctioned by liability concerns and multi-national contractual agreements. Arguably, standardization ensures that products that are manufactured by different companies are in fact compatible. This is important where the manufacturing of building components is concerned.  According to some, however, it can also stifle innovation and compromise the exercise of know-how and common sense. 

Drawing on the results of the symposium, ARCH+ will publish a special issue dedicated to the topic.

Friday, 20 October 2017

10.00 a.m.    Welcome: Peter Schmal, Director DAM; Prof. Philipp Oswalt, Universität Kassel, Department of Architectural Theory and Design

10.15 a.m.    On the ambivalence of standards. From normality to norm and back again? Robert Kaltenbrunner, BBR

Young Researcher Forum
1. Standardized Construction

10:45 a.m.    Beaux-Arts Esperanto: Toward a Universal Language of Global Polity, c. 1913. David Bijan Sadighian, M.A., Harvard University, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, History of Art and Architecture, Cambridge

11:05 a.m.    The industrial treatise: how nineteenth-century pocketbooks built the architect. Eric Carver, M.Arch., M.Phil., 
Columbia University, History and Theory, New York City

11:25 a.m.    Coffee break


11:50 a.m.    The Standard Vernacular: Processes and Practices Beyond the Plan Factory.
Paula Lupkin, PhD, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, Department of Art Education and Art History

12:10 p.m.    Vyacheslav Oltarzhevksky’s 1947 Dimensional Handbook for the Architect: Espionage and Reconstruction in the USSR. 
Samuel Delehanty Omans, M.A., Spitzer School of Archi-tecture, City College New York and Institute of Fine Arts, New York Uni-versity, New York City

12:30 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Kilian Enders and Nader Vossoughian

1:00 p.m. – 2:00 p.m. Lunch break

2. Standardized Planning

2:00 p.m.    Standardizing the Business of Building: Management and Marketing in The Architect’s Handbook, 1963–1988. 
Michael Abrahamson, M.Arch.S. in Criticism, Taubman College 
of Architecture and Urban Planning, History and Theory of Architecture, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

2:20 p.m.    Experimental school construction and the logic of the grid. The schools of Jean Prouvé after 2nd World War. 
Adrian Leander Pöllinger, MSc., Eidgenössische -Technische Hochschule Zürich

2:40 p.m.    Cold War Prefabrication Fever. Juliana Kei, M.Arch., School of Humanities, Royal College of Art, History of Desgin, London

3:00 p.m.    Standardizing Jurisdictional Interlock: Prefabricated Steel Houses, Labor, and Automation in Postwar America, 1943–1968. Manuel Shvartzberg Carrió, M.A., M.Phil., Columbia University, Architecture History and Theory, New York City

3:20 p.m.    Open Prefabrication / Open Specification: Freedom for Aesthetic Concerns, or Freedom from Social Liability? 
Tijana Stevanović, M.A., Grad.Eng.Arch. (MArch), School of Architecture, University for the Creative Arts, Bartlett School 
of Architecture, University College London, History and Theory

3:40 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Philipp Oswalt and Jan Bovelet

4:45 p.m.    Coffee break

3. Effects and Deviations

5:20 p.m.    Minimal Standards: the South African Building Research Institute and the NE-51/6 House, 1947–1952. Rixt Woudstra, M.A., History, Theory and Criticism of Architecture, MIT, Cambridge

5:40 p.m.    Deviations from a standard: exposing a greenboard ceiling at the McCormick Tribune Campus Centre. Mhairi McVicar, PhD, Welsh School of Architecture, Cardiff University, Cardiff

6:00 p.m.    Germany’s most normal town. 
Dipl.-Ing. Marcin Daniel Ganczarski, M.Phil., ETH Zürich

6:20 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Philipp Oswalt and Jan Bovelet

 

Saturday, 21 October 2017

9:30 a.m.    Introduction: * Philipp Oswalt, Universität Kassel, 
Department of Architectural Theory and Design

1. Designing Standardized
A. Historical Foundations

10:00 a.m.    The Introduction of Standard Systems of Measurement 
in the Enlightenment. Dr. Aashish Velkar, University of 
Manchester, Economic History

10:30 a.m.    Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand’s Development of Standard Types. Prof. Dr. Antoine Picon, Harvard University, GSD, 
Director of Research

11:00 a.m.    The DIN Format. * Prof. Dr. Markus Krajewski, University of Basel, Professor of Media Studies

11:30 a.m.    Coffee break

11:45 a.m.    Processes of Standardization / Standardizing 
the Standard (History of DIN). * Dr.-Ing. Matthias Witte, DIN-Normenausschuss Bauwesen

12:15 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Prof. Philipp Oswalt and 
Christa Kamleithner, Institute for Art History and Historical Urban Studies UdK

1:15 p.m.    Lunch break

B. From Neufert to BIM

2:30 p.m.    Rapid Design with Ernst Neufert. * Dr. Gernot Weckherlin, G-Prof. BTU Cottbus, Architectural Theory

3:00 p.m.    Expert systems. * Prof. Dr. Christian Kühn, TU Wien, 
Department of Building Theory and Design

3:30 p.m.    BIM—the architect’s perspective. * Dr. Alexander Rieck, Lava Architects Stuttgart

4:00 p.m.    Standardization by Scripting. * Prof. Thomas Auer, TU München / Transsolar

4:30 p.m.    Coffee break

5:00 p.m.    BIM—the engineer’s perspective. * Prof. Manfred Grohmann, Universität Kassel / Bollinger + Grohmann Ingenieure

5:30 p.m.–6:30 p.m. Discussion. * Moderation: Jan Bovelet and Kilian Enders

Sunday, October 22, 2017

2. Building standardized
A. Standardized Building Elements

9:30 a.m.    Ernst-Neufert and the Octametric System. Prof. Dr. Nader Vossoughian, New York Institute of Technology, School of Architecture and Design

10:00 a.m.    Standardization in hospital design and construction. * Prof. Christine Nickl-Weller, TU-Berlin, Nickel-Architekten, München

10:30 a.m.    The Normed Office. Hyun-Tae Jung, Assistant Professor at Lehigh University

11:00 a.m.    Coffee break

11:30 a.m.    Fritz Haller and Total Planning. * Prof. Dr. Georg Vrachliotis, KIT-Karlsruhe, Architectural Theory

12:00 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Kilian Enders and Christa Kamleithner

1:00 p.m.    Lunch break

B. Standardized Processes

2:00 p.m.    The Container Principle. * Alexander Klose, Berlin

2:30 p.m.    Standards and regulations in the design of innovative 
facades. * Prof. Dr. Daniel Pfanner, University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt / Main

3:00 p.m.    Standardization on Site: skill and the construction process in mid-twentieth century Britain. Dr. Christine Wall, 
University of Westminster, Centre for the Study of the Production 
of the Built Environment

3:30 p.m.    Coffee break

4:00 p.m.    Failed Standards: The Case of Grenfell towers
. Samuel Webb, Royal Institute of British Architects

4:30 p.m.    Discussion. Moderation: Jan Bovelet and Philipp Oswalt

5:30 p.m.    Break

6:00 p.m.    Standardized thinking? Introductory notes: Georg Augustin
The presentation will be followed by a discussion with Ministerialdirektorin Monika Thomas (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit), 
Prof. Manfred Grohmann, and Prof. Dr. Antoine Picon. 
Moderators: Kilian Enders, Philipp Oswalt

Contributions in German (marked by *) are simultaneously translated to English.
Extended and up-to-date informations at: www.uni-kassel.de/go/standard

Admission fees: day ticket 20€, conference ticket 50 €. Free admission for students (standing room tickets), Booking and reservation: Sekretariat Fachgebiet Architekturtheorie und Entwerfen, contact: weckmann@asl.uni-kassel.de

Host: Department of Architectural Theory and Design, University of Kassel 
in cooperation with ARCH+ and project bauhaus
Supported by Forschungsinitiative Zukunft Bau – BBSR / BMUB (Bundesinstitut für Bau-, Stadt- und Raumforschung / Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG, Wüstenrot Stiftung and Pfeiffer Stiftung