A remarkable characteristic of the Department of Zoology is the wide range of methods applied for research. The variety of methods we use ranges from the most modern morphological and microscopic techniques to the classic taxonomic, molecular, biochemical, developmental, evolutionary, neuroanatomical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches: :

Molecular and developmental biology methods [Reverse transcription, various PCR and cloning methods, RACE, in-situ hybridization]
(e.g., Franke & Mayer 2015 Genes Dev. Evol.; Franke et al. 2015 Evol. Dev.)


Phylogenetic analyses using morphological and molecular data sets [including Transcriptomics and Genome analyses]
(e.g., Hering et al. 2012 Mol. Biol. Evol.; Hering & Mayer 2014 Genome Biol. Evol.)


Electrophysiology [in collaboration with Prof. Paul A. Stevenson, Prof. Almut Kelber and Dr. Miriam Henze]
(e.g., Beckmann et al. 2015 J. Exp. Biol.)


Cryotome and Vibratome sectioning and immunolabelling
(e.g., Mayer et al. 2014 Nature; Mayer et al. 2015 J. Comp. Neurol.; Hering et al. 2016 eLife)


Antero- and retrograde fills of selected nerve tracts and microinjections of single neurons
(e.g., Mayer et al. 2010 BMC Evol. Biol.; Martin & Mayer 2015 BMC Neurosci.)


Proteomics: protein detection by native PAGE and SDS-PAGE, identification of proteins by mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF, MS/MS, in collaboration with Prof. Annette G. Beck-Sickinger]
(e.g.,. Baer et al. 2014 J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res.)


Cytology: Karyotype analyses using Giemsa and fluorescent DNA markers in conjunction with light and confocal microscopy
(e.g., Jeffery et al. 2012 Genetica; Oliveira et al. 2012 PLOS ONE)


Transmission electron microscopy [TEM]
(e.g., Mayer et al. 2005 J. Morphol.; Mayer 2006 Arthropod Struct. Dev.)


Scanning electron microscopy [SEM]
(e.g., Oliveira et al. 2014 Invertebr. Biol.; Oliveira et al. 2015 Syst. Biodiv.; Oliveira et al. 2016 Curr. Biol.)


X-ray micro-computed tomography techniques [such as SRµCT, µCT and nanoCT; in collaboration with Dr. Jörg U. Hammel, DESY, Hamburg & the Biomedical Physics Department, TU Munich)]
, (e.g., Mayer et al. 2015 Integr. Comp. Biol.; Oliveira et al. 2016 Curr. Biol.)


Histology and light microscopy [LM]
(e.g., Mayer 2006 Arthropod Struct. Dev.; Mayer 2007 Zootaxa; Mayer & Harzsch 2007 BMC Evol. Biol.)


Confocal laser scanning microscopy [CLSM]
(e.g., Mayer & Whitington 2009 Proc. R. Soc. B: Biol. Sci.; Mayer & Whitington 2009 Dev. Biol.)


3D reconstruction of morphological structures
(e.g., Mayer et al. 2015 Integr. Comp. Biol.; Oliveira et al. 2016 Curr. Biol.)


Classic scientific illustration [ink/pencil drawing]
(e.g., Oliveira et al. 2010 Zootaxa; Ou et al. 2012 Nature Commun.)


Rearing and breeding of different tardigrade species
(e.g., Gross & Mayer 2015 EvoDevo; Gross et al. 2015 In: A. Wanninger, „Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates“)


Rearing and breeding of representatives of both major onychophoran subgroups [Peripatidae and Peripatopsidae]
(e.g., Oliveira et al. 2012 PLOS ONE)