Func­tional Thin Films

The fundamental research in our group is dedicated to polycrystalline exchange biased magnetic thin films, which possess due to the combination of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic materials a remanent magnetization independent of their magnetic history. The dependence of the magnetic properties on the deposition parameters of the thin magnetic films as well as thermal and ion bombardment-induced processes is investigated. The focus of the experiments lies in the understanding of the change of inherent magnetic material constants, the formation of domain structures and their dynamics in external magnetic fields. Based on the results theoretical models are  created and optimized to fully describe the static and dynamic processes in magnetic thin films.

Reaching from magnetism fundamentals to applications the exchange biased thin film systems can be magnetically structured to serve as a source for tailored magnetic stray field landscapes. Here, one- or two-dimensional patterns of remanent magnetic domains can be generated via a treatment called ‘ion bombardment induced magnetic patterning’. Helium ions generated in a Penning ion source are accelerated (usually by an acceleration voltage of 10 kV) and then hit the magnetic sample on chosen positions – either in absence or presence of a magnetic field. Hence, the sample’s magnetization can be locally modified and it is possible to design domain patterns with for example antiparallel magnetization in adjacent domains, which are separated by so-called 180° domain walls. The here emerging magnetic stray fields are then spatially characterized and used in various applications.

This research is focused on the engineering of microstructures as well as particulate systems with defined magnetic properties, mainly through the deposition of thin magnetic layers on top of  objects with different shapes and curvatures. Of special interest is the experimental and theoretical investigation of the interplay between the object’s geometry and magnetic anisotropies (e.g. the unidirectional anisotropy in exchange biased thin films) and their influence on three-dimensional magnetization distributions. Thus structures with defined magnetization states can be fabricated allowing their use in specific applications, e.g. biosensing devices. 

Combining our expertise regarding the tailoring of magnetic stray field landscapes on a microscale and the fabrication of novel classes of magnetic materials and particles we investigate several promising application opportunities. Our main focus lies herein on the development of a Lab-on-a-chip technology platform based on the controllable actuation of magnetic micro- and nanoobjects within the afore mentioned magnetic stray field landscapes by adding a time-dependent external macroscopic magnetic field. As a result a wide variety of interesting processes can be induced: from an active substance mixing in tiny fluid volumes to capturing, purifying and detecting disease specific biomolecules the induced motion of magnetic objects gives rise to a variety of possible applications in biomedicine. Key factors for the motion direction and velocity, that are investigated systematically, include the underlying magnetic substrate structure (1D, 2D or 3D), the present surface forces and a desired bio functionalization of the magnetic objects. Additionally it is our goal to make use of artificial magnetic stray fields for the controlled self-assembly of magnetic particles in various media in order to realize e.g. magnetically switchable optical gratings or biomimetic hybrid materials.