Macroscopic QED

The quantum vacuum is a region of space from which electromagnetic fields have been removed as completely as possible. However, quantum electrodynamics predicts unavoidable field fluctuations -- virtual photons, which are spontaneously created and annihilated.

Our group investigates the consequences of this intriguing concept on the basis of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics (QED).

Constitutive relations: magneto-electric media

Quantised electric field:

Green's tensor:

Polariton operators:


Field Hamiltonian:

Atomic Hamiltonian:

Atom-field coupling: