# Energy and Thermodynamic Basics

## Overview

Compentency: Understanding basic physical concepts used in engineering

Module type: basic module

Semester: winter

Site: Monastir

Language: English

Workload: 150 hours course attendance; 100 hours self-study

Credits points: 10

Recommended qualifications: none

## Courses

### Learning Outcome

After the successful participation in the course **Thermodynamics Fundamentals** the students are able to:

- know the basic concepts, principles and the properties of thermodynamics and thermodynamic equilibria of pure fluids and mixtures
- control the mass balance, energy and entropy and exergy analysis of thermodynamic systems and processes
- master the wet air diagram and unit operations of the air treatment

### Content

- Fundamentals of thermodynamic e.g. open and closed systems, steadystate processing, state of matter, heat, molecular agitations, ideal gases, real gases
- thermodynamic properties (internal energy, enthalpy, free energy, free enthalpy, entropy, specific heat)
- first and second law of thermodynamics for a closed system
- thermodynamic relations (Gibbs equations, Maxwell's equations, characteristic functions, general expressions of S, U and H, general relationship between Cp and Cv)
- thermodynamic equilibrium phases (chemical potentials)
- state equations applied to pure fluids (state equation of ideal gases)
- thermodynamics of mixtures (mixture of ideal gases, ideal solutions)
- first law of thermodynamics for open systems (mass and energy balance)
- second law of thermodynamics for open systems (entropy balance sheet)
- exergy analysis (generation of entropy and exergy destruction, application to steady flows and closed systems)
- gas turbine (operating principle, Brayton cycle, inverted Brayton cycle), steam turbine (block diagram, Rankine cycles)
- engines
- refrigeration machines, single-stage and two-stage vapor compression (schematic diagrams, thermodynamic cycles in PH and TS diagrams, two-stage compression and expansion)
- cryogenic thermodynamic processes; liquefaction of air (Linde and Claude cycles)
- production of dry ice

### Details

- Lecturer: Abdelmajid Jemni; Habib Ben Aissia
- Teaching method: lecture, exercise
- SWS: 2
- Credit points: 2
- Examination: midterm assignments (1/3); final exam (2/3)

### Learning Outcome

After the successful participation in the course **Heat Transfer Fundamentals** the students are able to:

- know the basic concepts of thermal laws and identify the three ways of heat transfer (conduction, convection, radiation)
- set equation and solve a simple problem of heat transfer in the case of regular geometries subjected to different types of boundary conditions
- understand, model and control analytical and numerical techniques for solving heat

conduction problems - define and implement a heat conduction equation problem and choose the appropriate method to solve and interpret the numerical results

### Content

- Heat transfer basics: specific terms (temperature, heat flux, heat, isothermal surfaces); thermo physical characteristics; heat transfer methods (mechanisms and Fourier's, Newton's and Stefanâ€™s laws); simultaneous heat transfers.
- Problem resolution of heat transfer: heat balance concept; general equation of conduction; boundary conditions; electrical analogy; systems with internal heat source.
- Thermal fins study: introduction to the fins (applications, forms, materials, ... etc.); heat balance; performance and efficiency.
- Steady conduction: analytical solution of the Laplace equation; steady numerical methods.
- Unsteady conduction: dimensionless numbers (Biot and Fourier); thermally thin systems (low Biot); analytical and numerical methods.
- Introduction to convection: heat transfer by convection; the general equations of transfer; boundary layers.
- Forced convection: external flows; the experimental and theoretical methods; flow around a cylinder, sphere and a tube bundle; internal flows; hydrodynamic and thermal considerations; laminar flow in circular tubes; correlation for turbulent flow in circular

and non-circular tubes. - Natural convection: boussinesq Model; similarity; natural convection near a vertical wall; correlations for natural convection

### Details

- Lecturer: Naceur Borgini; Naoual Daouas; Maher Ben Chiekh
- Teaching method: lecture, exercise
- SWS: 4
- Credit points: 4
- Examination: midterm assignments (1/3); final exam (2/3)

### Learning Outcome

After the successful participation in the course **Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals** the students are able to:

- measure the pressure and the velocity
- calculate hydrostatic strength
- determine the velocity profiles (in a pipe and inside the boundary layer) and determine the friction forces

### Content

- Fluid specifications, dimensions and units
- the basic law of the hydrostatic
- the applications (pressure variation, measuring pressure, hydrostatic force on a surface)
- fluid kinematics; dynamics of perfect incompressible fluids (Bernoulli equation, applications e.g. speed measurement)
- Euler theorem
- dynamic of real incompressible fluids (Couette experience, laminar viscous flow, Poiseuille flow)
- concept of loss and singular linear load
- boundary layer (concept of the boundary layer, local and global equations of the boundary layer, characteristics of the boundary layer, accurate and approximate solutions of the boundary layer)
- similitude and dimensional analysis; dynamics of elastic fluids (unidirectional flow)
- shockwave

### Details

- Lecturer: Hacen Dhahri; Khalifa Mejbri; Ramla Gheith
- Teaching method: lecture, exercise
- SWS: 4
- Credit points: 4
- Examination: midterm assignments (1/3); final exam (2/3)