• Oliveira, I.S., Jahn, H., Klinger, M. & Mayer, G. (submitted): Onychophora, Velvet Worms. In: G. Purschke & A. Schmidt-Rhaesa (Eds) Invertebrate Morphology and Evolution. Springer, Heidelberg.


  • Oliveira, I.S. (2023): An updated world checklist of velvet worms (Onychophora) with notes on nomenclature and status of names. ZooKeys 1184:133–260. Free article.
  • Poulhazan, A.*, Baer, A.*, Daliaho, G., Mentink-Vigier, F., Arnold, A.A., Browne, D.C., Hering, L., Archer-Hartmann, S., Pepi, L.E., Azadi, P., Schmidt, S., Mayer, G., Marcotte, I. & Harrington, M.J. (2023): Peculiar phosphonate modifications of velvet worm slime revealed by advanced nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. Journal of the American Chemical Society 145:20749–20754. *Equal contribution. Free article.
  • Budd, G.E., Mayer, G., Janssen, R. & Eriksson, B.J. (2023): Comment on “The lower Cambrian lobopodian Cardiodictyon resolves the origin of euarthropod brains”. Science 380:eadg1412. Free article.
  • Jahn, H., Hammel, J.U., Göpel, T., Wirkner, C.S. & Mayer, G. (2023): A multiscale approach reveals elaborate circulatory system and intermittent heartbeat in velvet worms (Onychophora). Communications Biology 6:468. Free article.
  • Baer, A., Hoffmann, I., Mahmoudi, N., Poulhazan, A., Harrington, M.J., Mayer, G., Schmidt, S. & Schneck, E. (2023): The internal structure of the velvet worm projectile slime: A small-angle scattering study. Small 2023:e2300516. Free article.
  • Grams, M.*, Klinger, M.* & Richter, S. (2023): Neither leg nor jaw—nor always the same: a critical revision of the eumalacostracan maxilliped. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 197:965–1004. *Equal contribution.


  • Martin, C., Jahn, H., Klein, M.M., Hammel, J.U., Stevenson, P.A., Homberg, U. & Mayer, G. (2022): The velvet worm brain unveils homologies and evolutionary novelties across panarthropods. BMC Biology 20:26. Free article.
  • Treffkorn, S., Mayer, G. & Janssen, R. (2022): Review of extra-embryonic tissues in the closest arthropod relatives, onychophorans and tardigrades. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 377: 20210270.
  • Tait, N.N., Oliveira, I.S. & Mayer, G. (2022): Translation of N.B.K. Sänger’s (1871) “Peripatus capensis Gr. and Peripatus leuckartii n. sp.” (Onychophora), along with remarks about the author and significance of his work. Australian Zoologist 42:71–94. Free article.
  • Ou, Q., Shu, D., Zhang, Z., Han, J., Van Iten, H., Cheng, M., Sun, J., Yao, X., Wang, R. & Mayer, G. (2022): Dawn of complex animal food webs: A new predatory anthozoan (Cnidaria) from Cambrian. Innovation 3:100195. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S. & Mayer, G. (2022): Phylum Onychophora. In: B. Schierwater & R. DeSalle (Eds) Invertebrate Zoology: A Tree of Life Approach. CRC Press, Oxon, 459–475.
  • Gross, V. & Mayer, G. (2022): Phylum Tardigrada. In: B. Schierwater & R. DeSalle (Eds) Invertebrate Zoology: A Tree of Life Approach. CRC Press, Oxon, 499–511.



  • Jezierska, M.,Miernik, A., Sojka, J., Student, S., Sliwińska, M.A., Gross, V. & Poprawa, I. (2021): Oogenesis in the tardigrade Hypsibius exemplaris Gąsiorek, Stec, Morek & Michalczyk, 2018 (Eutardigrada, Hypsibiidae). Micron 150:103126.
  • Gross, V., Epple, L. & Mayer, G. (2021): Organization of the central nervous system and innervation of cephalic sensory structures in the water bear Echiniscus testudo (Tardigrada: Heterotardigrada) revisited. Journal of Morphology 282:1298–1312. Free article.



  • Ou, Q., Vannier, J., Yang, X., Chen, A., Mai, H., Shu, D., Han, J., Fu, D., Wang, R. & Mayer, G. (2020): Evolutionary trade-off in reproduction of Cambrian arthropods. Science Advances 6:eaaz3376.
  • Vizueta, J., Escuer, P., Frías-López, C., Guirao-Rico, S., Hering, L., Mayer, G., Rozas, J. & Sánchez-Gracia, A. (2020): Evolutionary history of major chemosensory gene families across Panarthropoda. Molecular Biology and Evolution 37:3601–3615.
  • Cerullo, A.R., Lai, T.Y., Allam, B., Baer, A., Barnes, W.J.P., Barrientos, Z., Deheyn, D.D., Fudge, D.S., Gould, J., Harrington, M.J., Holford, M., Hung, C.-S., Jain, G., Mayer, G., Medina, M., Monge-Nájera, J., Napolitano, T., Espinosa, E.P., Schmidt, S., Thompson, E.M. & Braunschweig, A.B. (2020): Comparative animal mucomics: Inspiration for functional materials from ubiquitous and understudied biopolymers. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering 6:5377–5398.
  • Martin, C., Hering, L., Metzendorf, N., Hormann, S., Kasten, S., Fuhrmann, S., Werckenthin, A., Herberg, F.W., Stengl, M. & Mayer, G. (2020): Analysis of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides and their receptor in a velvet worm. Frontiers in Endocrinology 11:273. Free article.
  • Thomas, G.W.C., Dohmen, E., Hughes, D.S.T., Murali, S.C., Poelchau, M., Glastad, K., Anstead, C.A., Ayoub, N.A., Batterham, P., Bellair, M., Binford, G.J., Chao, H., Chen, Y.H., Childers, C., Dinh, H., Doddapaneni, H., Duan, J.J., Dugan, S., Esposito, L.A., Friedrich, M., Garb, J., Gasser, R.B., Goodisman, M.A.D., Gundersen-Rindal, D.E., Han, Y., Handler, A.M., Hatakeyama, M., Hering, L., Hunter, W.B., Ioannidis, P., Jayaseelan, J.C., Kalra, D., Khila, A., Korhonen, P.K., Lee, C.E., Lee, S.L., Li, Y., Lindsey, A.R.I., Mayer, G., McGregor, A.P., McKenna, D.D., Misof, B., Munidasa, M., Munoz-Torres, M., Muzny, D.M., Niehuis, O., Osuji-Lacy, N., Palli, S.R., Panfilio, K.A., Pechmann, M., Perry, T., Peters, R.S., Poynton, H.C., Prpic, N.-M., Qu, J., Rotenberg, D., Schal, C., Schoville, S.D., Scully, E.D., Skinner, E., Sloan, D.B., Stouthamer, R., Strand, M.R., Szucsich, N.U., Wijeratne, A., Young, N.D., Zattara, E.E., Benoit, J.B., Zdobnov, E.M., Pfrender, M.E., Hackett, K.J., Werren, J.H., Worley, K.C., Gibbs, R.A., Chipman, A.D., Waterhouse, R.M., Bornberg-Bauer, E., Hahn, M.W. & Richards, S. (2020): Gene content evolution in the arthropods. Genome Biology 21:15. Free article.
  • Baranov, V., Jourdan, J., Pilotto, F., Wagner, R. and Haase, P. (2020): Complex and nonlinear climate-driven changes in freshwater insect communities over 42 years. Conservation Biology 34:1241–1251. Free article.



  • Oliveira, I.S.*, Kumerics, A.*, Jahn, H., Müller, M., Pfeiffer, F. & Mayer, G. (2019): Functional morphology of a lobopod: Case study of an onychophoran leg. Royal Society Open Science 6:191200. *Shared first authorship. Free article.
  • Gross, V. & Mayer, G. (2019): Cellular morphology of leg musculature in the water bear Hypsibius exemplaris (Tardigrada) unravels serial homologies. Royal Society Open Science 6:191159. Free article.
  • Baer, A., Oliveira, I.S., Schmidt, S., Harrington, M.J. & Mayer, G. (2019): Der "Sekundenkleber" der Stummelfüßer: Strategien der Natur als Vorbild für nachhaltige Biomaterialien.. Biologie in unserer Zeit 49: 418–425. Free article.
  • Baer, A., Schmidt, S., Mayer, G. & Harrington, M.J. (2019): Fibers on the fly: Multiscale mechanisms of fiber formation in the capture slime of velvet worms. Integrative and Comparative Biology 59:1690–1699.
  • Treffkorn, S., Lagos, O.Y.H. & Mayer, G. (2019): Evidence for cell turnover as the mechanism responsible for the transport of embryos towards the vagina in viviparous onychophorans (velvet worms). Frontiers in Zoology 16:16. Free article.
  • Baer, A., Horbelt, N., Nijemeisland, M., Garcia, S.J., Fratzl, P., Schmidt, S., Mayer, G. & Harrington, M.J. (2019): Shear-induced β-crystallite unfolding in condensed phase nanodroplets promotes fiber formation in a biological adhesive. ACS Nano 13:4992–5001.
  • Gross, V.*, Müller, M.*, Hehn, L., Ferstl, S., Allner, S., Dierolf, M., Achterhold, K., Mayer, G.**, & Pfeiffer, F.** (2019): X-ray imaging of a water bear offers a new look at tardigrade internal anatomy. Zoological Letters 5:14. * and ** Equal contribution. Free article.
  • Treffkorn, S. & Mayer, G. (2019): Expression of NK genes that are not part of the NK cluster in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae). BMC Developmental Biology 19:7. Free article.
  • Gross, V.*, Treffkorn, S.*, Reichelt, J., Epple, L., Lüter, C., & Mayer, G. (2019): Miniaturization of tardigrades (water bears): Morphological and genomic perspectives. Arthropod Structure and Development 48:12–19. *Equal contribution.
  • McCravy, K.W. & Oliveira, I.S. (2019): Onychophorans (Velvet Worms): Natural history and conservation of a vulnerable invertebrate taxon in the Caribbean islands. Caribbean Naturalist Special Issue 2:135–155.
  • Petersen, M., Armisen, D., Gibbs, R.A., Hering, L., Khila, A., Mayer, G., Richards, S. & Misof, B. (2019): Diversity and evolution of the transposable element repertoire in arthropods with particular reference to insects. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19:11. Free article.
  • Segura, B. & Mayer, G. (2019): Onicóforos de la Cordillera de la Costa de Chile. In: C. Smith-Ramírez & F.A. Squeo (Eds) Biodiversidad y Ecología de los Bosques Costeros de Chile. Editorial Universidad de Los Lagos, Osorno, pp. 53–56.



  • Baer, A., Hänsch, S., Mayer, G., Harrington, M.J. & Schmidt, S. (2018): Reversible supramolecular assembly of velvet worm adhesive fibers via electrostatic interactions of charged phosphoproteins. Biomacromolecules 19:4034–4043.
  • Ou, Q. & Mayer, G. (2018): A Cambrian unarmored lobopodian, †Lenisambulatrix humboldti gen. et sp. nov., compared with new material of †Diania cactiformis. Scientific Reports 8:13667.
  • Schumann, I.*, Kenny, N., Hui, J., Hering, L.* & Mayer, G. (2018): Halloween genes in panarthropods and the evolution of the early moulting pathway in Ecdysozoa. Royal Society Open Science 5:180888. *Equal contribution. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Ruhberg, H., Rowell, D.M. & Mayer, G. (2018): Revision of Tasmanian viviparous velvet worms (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae) with descriptions of two new species. Invertebrate Systematics 32: 909–932.
  • Treffkorn, S., Kahnke, L., Hering, L. & Mayer, G. (2018): Expression of NK cluster genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli: Implications for the evolution of NK family genes in nephrozoans. EvoDevo 9: 17. Free article.
  • Kirwan, J.D., Graf, J., Smolka, J., Mayer, G., Henze, M.J. & Nilsson, D.-E. (2018): Low resolution vision in a velvet worm (Onychophora). Journal of Experimental Biology 221: jeb175802.
  • Prathapan, K.D., Pethiyagoda, R., Bawa, K.S., Raven, P.H., Rajan, P.D. & 172 co-signatories from 35 countries (2018): When the cure kills—CBD limits biodiversity research. Science 360: 1405–1406.
  • Jahn, H., Oliveira, I.S., Gross, V., Martin, C., Hipp, A., Mayer, G. & Hammel, J.U. (2018): Evaluation of contrasting techniques for X-ray imaging of velvet worms (Onychophora). Journal of Microscopy 270: 343–358.
  • Gross, V., Bährle, R. & Mayer, G. (2018): Detection of cell proliferation in adults of the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Tardigrada) via incorporation of a thymidine analog. Tissue and Cell 51: 77–83.



  • Ou, Q., Han, J., Zhang, Z., Shu, D., Sun, G. & Mayer, G. (2017): Three Cambrian fossils assembled into an extinct body plan of cnidarian affinity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 8835–8840.
  • Müller, M., Oliveira, I.S., Allner, S., Ferstl, S., Bidola, P., Mechlem, K., Fehringer, A., Hehn, L., Dierolf, M., Achterhold, K., Gleich, B., Hammel, J.U., Jahn, H., Mayer, G. & Pfeiffer, F. (2017): Myoanatomy of the velvet worm leg revealed by laboratory-based nanofocus X-ray source tomography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 114: 12378–12383.
  • Baer, A., Schmidt, S., Haensch, S., Eder, M., Mayer, G. & Harrington, M.J. (2017): Mechanoresponsive lipid-protein nanoglobules facilitate reversible fibre formation in velvet worm slime. Nature Communications 8: 974.
  • Han, J., Conway Morris, S., Ou, Q.,Shu, D. & Huang, H. (2017): Meiofaunal deuterostomes from the basal Cambrian of Shaanxi (China). Nature 542: 228–231.
  • Martin, C., Gross, V., Hering, L., Tepper, B., Jahn, H., Oliveira, I.S., Stevenson, P.A. & Mayer, G. (2017): The nervous and visual systems of onychophorans and tardigrades: learning about arthropod evolution from their closest relatives. Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology 203: 565–590.
  • Oliveira, I.S. & Mayer, G. (2017): A new giant egg-laying onychophoran (Peripatopsidae) reveals evolutionary and biogeographical aspects of Australian velvet worms. Organisms Diversity & Evolution 17: 375–391.
  • Martin, C., Gross, V., Pflüger, H.J., Stevenson, P.A. & Mayer, G. (2017): Assessing segmental versus non-segmental features in the ventral nervous system of onychophorans (velvet worms). BMC Evolutionary Biology 17: 3. Free article.
  • Treffkorn, S. & Mayer, G. (2017): Conserved versus derived patterns of controlled cell death during the embryonic development of two species of Onychophora (velvet worms). Developmental Dynamics 246: 403–416.
  • Gross, V., Minich, I. & Mayer, G. (2017): External morphogenesis of the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Morphology 278: 563–573.
  • Wittmer, C. & Nowack, C. (2017): Epithelial crypts: A complex and enigmatic olfactory organ in African and South American lungfish (Lepidosireniformes, Dipnoi). Journal of Morphology 278: 791–800.
  • von Byern, J., Müller, C., Voigtländer, K., Dorrer, V., Marchetti-Deschmann, M., Flammang, P. & Mayer, G. (2017): Examples of Bioadhesives for Defence and Predation. In: S.N. Gorb & E.V. Gorb (Eds) Biologically-Inspired Systems 10: Functional Surfaces in Biology III: Diversity of the Physical Phenomena. Springer, Cham, pp. 141–191.



  • Oliveira, I.S.*, Bai, M.*, Jahn, H., Gross, V., Martin, C., Hammel, J.U., Zhang, W. & Mayer, G. (2016): Earliest onychophoran in amber reveals Gondwanan migration patterns. Current Biology 26: 2594–2601. *Shared first authorship.
  • Hering, L.*, Bouameur, J.-E.*, Reichelt, J.*, Magin, T.M., & Mayer, G. (2016): Novel origin of lamin-derived cytoplasmic intermediate filaments in tardigrades. eLife 5:e11117. Free article. *Shared first authorship.
  • Pauli, T., Vedder, L., Dowling, D., Petersen, M., Meusemann, K., Donath, A., Peters, R.S., Podsiadlowski, L., Mayer, C., Liu, S., Zhou, X., Heger, P., Wiehe, T., Hering, L., Mayer, G., Misof, B. & Niehuis, O. (2016): Transcriptomic data from panarthropods shed new light on the evolution of insulator binding proteins in insects. BMC Genomics 17: 861. Free article.
  • Schumann, I., Hering, L. & Mayer, G. (2016): Immunolocalization of arthropsin in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli (Peripatopsidae). Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 10: 80. Free article.
  • Mayer, G. (2016): Onychophora. In: A. Schmidt-Rhaesa, S. Harzsch & G. Purschke (Eds) Structure and Evolution of Invertebrate Nervous Systems. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 390–401.



  • Martin, C. & Mayer, G. (2015): Insights into the segmental identity of post-oral commissures and pharyngeal nerves in Onychophora based on retrograde fills. BMC Neuroscience 16: 53. Free article.
  • Franke, F.A. & Mayer, G. (2015): Expression study of the hunchback ortholog in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Development Genes and Evolution 225: 207–219.
  • Gross, V. & Mayer, G. (2015): Neural development in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini based on anti-acetylated α-tubulin immunolabeling. EvoDevo 6: 12. Free article.
  • Mayer, G., Hering, L., Stosch, J.M., Stevenson, P.A. & Dircksen, H. (2015): Evolution of pigment-dispersing factor neuropeptides in Panarthropoda: Insights from Onychophora (velvet worms) and Tardigrada (water bears). Journal of Comparative Neurology 523: 1865–1885.
  • Mayer, G., Oliveira, I.S., Baer, A., Hammel, J.U., Gallant, J. & Hochberg, R. (2015): Capture of prey, feeding, and functional anatomy of the jaws in velvet worms (Onychophora). Integrative and Comparative Biology 55: 217–227.
  • Beckmann, H., Hering, L., Henze, M.J., Kelber, A., Stevenson, P.A. & Mayer, G. (2015): Spectral sensitivity in Onychophora (velvet worms) revealed by electroretinograms, phototactic behaviour and opsin gene expression. Journal of Experimental Biology 218: 915–922.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Lacorte, G.A., Weck-Heimann, A., Cordeiro, L.M., Wieloch, A.H. & Mayer, G. (2015): A new and critically endangered species and genus of Onychophora (Peripatidae) from the Brazilian savannah – a vulnerable biodiversity hotspot. Systematics and Biodiversity 13: 211–233.
  • Franke, F.A., Schumann, I., Hering, L. & Mayer, G. (2015): Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily. Evolution & Development 17: 3–20.
  • Mayer, G., Franke, F.A., Treffkorn, S., Gross, V. & Oliveira, I.S. (2015): Onychophora. In: A. Wanninger (Ed.) Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 3: Ecdysozoa I: Non-Tetraconata. Springer, Vienna, 53–98.
  • Gross, V., Treffkorn, S. & Mayer, G. (2015): Tardigrada. In: A. Wanninger (Ed.) Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Invertebrates 3: Ecdysozoa I: Non-Tetraconata. Springer, Vienna, 35–52.
  • Richter, S., Schwarz, F., Hering, L., Böggemann, M. & Bleidorn, C. (2015): The utility of genome skimming for phylogenomic analyses as demonstrated for glycerid relationships (Annelida, Glyceridae). Genome Biology and Evolution 7:3443–3462. Free article.



  • Mayer, G., Martin, C., Oliveira, I.S., Franke, F.A. & Gross, V. (2014): Latest anomalocaridid affinities challenged. Nature 516:E1–E2.
  • Franke, F.A. & Mayer, G. (2014): Controversies surrounding segments and parasegments in Onychophora: Insights from the expression patterns of four "segment polarity genes" in the peripatopsid Euperipatoides rowelli. PLOS ONE 9(12):e114383. Free article.
  • Murdock, D.J.E., Gabbott, S.E., Mayer, G. & Purnell, M.A. (2014): Decay of velvet worms (Onychophora), and bias in the fossil record of lobopodians. BMC Evolutionary Biology 14:222. Free article.
  • Hering, L. & Mayer, G. (2014): Analysis of the opsin repertoire in the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini provides insights into the evolution of opsin genes in Panarthropoda. Genome Biology and Evolution 6:2380–2391. Free article. Recommended on Faculty of 1000.
  • Baer, A., Oliveira, I.S., Steinhagen, M., Beck-Sickinger, A. & Mayer, G. (2014): Slime protein profiling: A non-invasive tool for species identification in Onychophora (velvet worms). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 52:265–272.
  • Murienne, J., Daniels, S.R., Buckley, T.R., Mayer, G. & Giribet, G. (2014): A living fossil tale of Pangean biogeography. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281: 20132648. Free article.
  • Martin, C. & Mayer, G. (2014): Neuronal tracing of oral nerves in a velvet worm – Implications for the evolution of the ecdysozoan brain. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy 8:7. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Lüter, C., Wolf, K.W. & Mayer, G. (2014): Evolutionary changes in the integument of the onychophoran Plicatoperipatus jamaicensis (Peripatidae). Invertebrate Biology 133:274–280.
  • von Reumont, B.M., Campbell, L.I., Richter, S., Hering, L., Sykes, D., Hetmank, J., Jenner, R.A. & Bleidorn, C. (2014): A polychaete's powerful punch: venom gland transcriptomics of Glycera reveals a complex cocktail of toxin homologs. Genome Biology and Evolution 6:2406–2423. Free article.
  • Struck, T.H., Wey-Fabrizius, A.R., Golombek, A., Hering, L., Weigert, A., Bleidorn, C., Klebow, S., Iakovenko, N., Hausdorf, B., Petersen, M., Kück, P., Herlyn, H. & Hankeln, T. (2014): Platyzoan paraphyly based on phylogenomic data supports a non-coelomate ancestry of Spiralia. Molecular Biology and Evolution 31:1833–1849.
  • Gross, V., Miller, W.R. & Hochberg, R. (2014): A new tardigrade, Mutaparadoxipus duodigifinis gen. nov., sp. nov. (Heterotardigrada: Arthrotardigrada), from the Southeastern United States. Zootaxa 3835:263–272.
  • Andres C., Franke F., Bleidorn C., Bernhard D. & Schlegel M. (2014): Phylogenetic analysis of the Lacerta agilis subspecies complex. Systematics and Biodiversity 12:43–54.
  • Mayer, G. (2014): Book review "Arthropod Biology and Evolution – Molecules, Development, Morphology". Minelli A, Boxshall G, Fusco G (Eds). Springer, Heidelberg, 2013. 532 pp. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 52:94. Free article.



  • Mayer, G., Martin, C., Rüdiger, J., Kauschke, S., Stevenson, P.A., Poprawa, I., Hohberg, K., Schill, R.O., Pflüger, H.-J. & Schlegel, M. (2013): Selective neuronal staining in tardigrades and onychophorans provides insights into the evolution of segmental ganglia in panarthropods. BMC Evolutionary Biology 13:230. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Tait, N.N., Strübing, I. & Mayer, G. (2013): The role of ventral and preventral organs as attachment sites for segmental limb muscles in Onychophora. Frontiers in Zoology 10:73. Free article.
  • Treffkorn, S. & Mayer, G. (2013): Expression of the decapentaplegic ortholog in embryos of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Gene Expression Patterns 13:384–394. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S. & Mayer, G. (2013): Apodemes associated with limbs support serial homology of claws and jaws in Onychophora (velvet worms). Journal of Morphology 274:1180–1190.
  • Mayer, G., Kauschke, S., Rüdiger, J. & Stevenson, P.A. (2013): Neural markers reveal a one-segmented head in tardigrades (water bears). PLOS ONE 8(3):e59090. Free article.
  • Helm, C., Weigert, A., Mayer, G. & Bleidorn, C. (2013): Myoanatomy of Myzostoma cirriferum: Implications for the evolution of the myzostomid body plan. Journal of Morphology 274:456–466.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Schaffer, S., Kvartalnov, P.V., Galoyan, E.A., Palko, I.V., Weck-Heimann, A., Geißler, P., Ruhberg, H. & Mayer, G. (2013): A new species of Eoperipatus (Onychophora) from Vietnam reveals novel morphological characters for the South-East Asian Peripatidae. Zoologischer Anzeiger 252:495–510.
  • Hochberg, R., Atherton, S. & Gross, V. (2013): A new species of sublittoral marine gastrotrich, Lepidodasys ligni sp. nov. (Macrodasyida, Lepidodasyidae), from the Atlantic coast of Florida. ZooKeys 289:1–12. Free article.
  • Mayer, G. & Oliveira, I.S. (2013): Phylum Onychophora Grube, 1853. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness (Addenda 2013). Zootaxa 3703:15–16. Free article.
  • Ruhberg, H. & Mayer, G. (2013): Onychophora, Stummelfüßer. In: W. Westheide & G. Rieger (Eds) Spezielle Zoologie. Teil 1. Einzeller und Wirbellose Tiere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 457–464.
  • Stein, M. & Mayer, G. (2013): Fossile Panarthropoda. In: W. Westheide & G. Rieger (Eds) Spezielle Zoologie. Teil 1. Einzeller und Wirbellose Tiere. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 472–473.



  • Ou, Q., Shu, D. & Mayer, G. (2012): Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda. Nature Communications 3:1261. Free article.
  • Haug, J.T., Mayer, G., Haug, C. & Briggs, D.E.G. (2012): A Carboniferous non-onychophoran lobopodian reveals long-term survival of a Cambrian morphotype. Current Biology 22:1673–1675. Free article.
  • Hering, L., Henze, M.J., Kohler, M., Kelber, A., Bleidorn, C., Leschke, M., Nickel, B., Meyer, M., Kircher, M., Sunnucks, P. & Mayer, G. (2012): Opsins in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 29:3451–3458. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Read, V.M.St.J. & Mayer, G. (2012): A world checklist of Onychophora (velvet worms), with notes on nomenclature and status of names. ZooKeys 211:1–70. Free article.
  • Baer, A. & Mayer, G. (2012): Comparative anatomy of slime glands in Onychophora (velvet worms). Journal of Morphology 273:1079–1088.
  • Jeffery, N.W., Oliveira, I.S., Gregory, T.R., Rowell, D.M. & Mayer, G. (2012): Genome size and chromosome number in velvet worms (Onychophora). Genetica 140:497–504.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Franke, F.A., Hering, L., Schaffer, S., Rowell, D.M., Weck-Heimann, A., Monge-Nájera, J., Morera-Brenes, B. & Mayer, G. (2012): Unexplored character diversity in Onychophora (velvet worms): a comparative study of three peripatid species. PLOS ONE 7(12):e51220. Free article.



  • Chisholm, R.H., Hughes, B.D., Landman, K.A., Mayer, G. & Whitington, P.M. (2011): When are cellular oscillators sufficient for sequential segmentation? Journal of Theoretical Biology 279:150–160.
  • Whitington, P.M. & Mayer, G. (2011): The origins of the arthropod nervous system: insights from the Onychophora. Arthropod Structure & Development 40:193–209. Invited paper for a Special Issue.
  • Lacorte, G.A., Oliveira, I.S. & Fonseca, C.G. (2011): Population structure and demographic inferences of the endangered onychophoran species Epiperipatus acacioi (Onychophora: Peripatidae). Genetics and Molecular Research 10:2775–2785. Free article.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Lacorte, G.A., Fonseca, C.G., Wieloch, A.H. & Mayer, G. (2011): Cryptic speciation in Brazilian Epiperipatus (Onychophora: Peripatidae) reveals an underestimated diversity among the peripatid velvet worms. PLOS ONE 6(6):e19973. Free article.
  • Lacorte, G.A., Oliveira, I.S. & Fonseca, C.G. (2011): Phylogenetic relationships among the Epiperipatus lineages (Onychophora: Peripatidae) from the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Zootaxa 2755:57–65.
  • Mayer, G. & Oliveira, I. S. (2011): Phylum Onychophora Grube, 1853. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148:98. Free article.
  • Groh, C. & Mayer, G. (2011): Evolution of the arthropod nervous system. Part 1. Arthropod Structure & Development 40:191–192. Editorial for a Special Issue.
  • Groh, C. & Mayer, G. (2011): Evolution of the arthropod nervous system. Part 2. Arthropod Structure & Development 40:303. Editorial for a Special Issue.



  • Allwood, J., Gleeson, D., Mayer, G., Daniels, S., Beggs, J., & Buckley, T.R. (2010): Support for vicariant origins of the New Zealand Onychophora fauna. Journal of Biogeography 37:669–681.
  • Mayer, G., Whitington, P.M., Sunnucks, P. & Pflüger, H.-J. (2010): A revision of brain composition in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests that the tritocerebrum evolved in arthropods. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:255. Free article.
  • Mayer, G., Kato, C., Quast, B., Chisholm, R.H., Landman, K.A. & Quinn, L.M. (2010): Growth patterns in Onychophora (velvet worms): lack of a localised posterior proliferation zone. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:339. Free article.
  • Braband, A.*, Cameron, S.L.*, Podsiadlowski, L., Daniels, S.R. & Mayer, G. (2010): The mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Opisthopatus cinctipes (Peripatopsidae) reflects the ancestral mitochondrial gene arrangement of Panarthropoda and Ecdysozoa. *Equal contribution. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 57:285–292.
  • Braband, A., Podsiadlowski, L., Cameron, S.L., Daniels, S.R. & Mayer, G. (2010): Extensive duplication events account for multiple control regions and pseudogenes in the mitochondrial genome of the velvet worm Metaperipatus inae (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae). Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 57:293–300.
  • Oliveira, I.S., Wieloch, A.H. & Mayer, G. (2010): Revised taxonomy and redescription of two species of the Peripatidae (Onychophora) from Brazil: a step towards consistent terminology of morphological characters. Zootaxa 2493:16–34.



  • Mayer, G. & Whitington, P.M. (2009): Velvet worm development links myriapods with chelicerates. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276:3571–3579. Recommended on Faculty of 1000.
  • Mayer, G. & Whitington, P.M. (2009): Neural development in Onychophora (velvet worms) suggests a step-wise evolution of segmentation in the nervous system of Panarthropoda. Developmental Biology 335:263–275. Free article.
  • Mayer, G. & Tait, N.N. (2009): Position and development of oocytes in velvet worms shed light on the evolution of the ovary in Onychophora and Arthropoda. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157:17–33.
  • Podsiadlowski, L., Braband, A. & Mayer, G. (2008): The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 25:42–51. Free article.
  • Mayer, G. & Harzsch, S. (2008): Distribution of serotonin in the trunk of Metaperipatus blainvillei (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae): Implications for the evolution of the nervous system in Arthropoda. Journal of Comparative Neurology 507:1196–1208.
  • Mayer, G. & Harzsch, S. (2007): Immunolocalization of serotonin in Onychophora argues against segmental ganglia being an ancestral feature of arthropods. BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:118. Free article.
  • Maas, A., Mayer, G., Kristensen, R.M., & Waloszek, D. (2007): A Cambrian micro-lobopodian and the evolution of arthropod locomotion and reproduction. Chinese Science Bulletin 52:3385–3392.
  • Mayer, G. (2007): Metaperipatus inae sp. nov. (Onychophora: Peripatopsidae) from Chile with a novel ovarian type and dermal insemination. Zootaxa 1440:21–37.
  • Mayer, G. (2006): Structure and development of the onychophoran eyes – what is the ancestral visual organ in arthropods? Arthropod Structure & Development 35:231–245. Invited paper for a Special Issue.
  • Mayer, G. (2006): Origin and differentiation of nephridia in the Onychophora provide no support for the Articulata. Zoomorphology 125:1–12.
  • Oliveira, I.S. & Wieloch, A.H. (2005): Macroperipatus machadoi sp. n. (Onychophora: Peripatidae) da Floresta Atlântica de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Lundiana 6:61–66. Free article.
  • Mayer, G. & Koch, M. (2005): Ultrastructure and fate of the nephridial anlagen in the antennal segment of Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae) – Evidence for onychophoran antennae being modified legs. Arthropod Structure & Development 34:471–480.
  • Mayer, G., Bartolomaeus, T. & Ruhberg, H. (2005): Ultrastructure of mesoderm in embryos of Opisthopatus roseus (Onychophora, Peripatopsidae): Revision of the "Long Germ Band" hypothesis for Opisthopatus. Journal of Morphology 263:60–70.
  • Mayer, G., Ruhberg, H. & Bartolomaeus, T. (2004): When an epithelium ceases to exist – An ultrastructural study on the fate of the embryonic coelom in Epiperipatus biolleyi (Onychophora, Peripatidae). Acta Zoologica 85:163–170.
  • Mayer, G. & Bartolomaeus, T. (2003): Ciliary basal structures and their distribution in Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia). Meiofauna Marina 12:85–95.
  • Mayer, G. & Bartolomaeus, T. (2003): Ultrastructure of the stomochord and the heart-glomerulus complex in Rhabdopleura compacta (Pterobranchia): phylogenetic implications. Zoomorphology 122:125–133.