Dr. phil. Dipl.-Math. Friedrich Krebs


Krebs, Friedrich
+49 561 804-6141
+49 561 804-6027
Wilhelmshöher Allee 73
34121 Kassel
WA-altes Gebäude (WA 73), ohne Raumangabe

Research interests

Agent-based modelling, simulation and optimisation approaches to energy systems, policy modelling and decision-support, empirically grounded diffusion models, sustainable behaviour in large populations


Decarbonisation of traffic - feedbacks with the energy system - global to regional (DeVKopSys2)

01/2022 - 10/2024

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Hoffmann, Clemens
Nacken, Lukas; Dr. Krebs, Friedrich

The project objectives include analysis of impacts of decarbonisation in the traffic sector and analysis of the global potential to supply P2X fuels under consideration of national transformation pathways.

Heat Trans­ition of the Urban Build­ing Stock by In­ter­act­ive De­cision Space Ana­lysis

08/2022 - 07/2025

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Hoffmann, Clemens
Dr. Krebs, Friedrich; Dr. Holzhauer, Sascha; Digel, Ivan

The project WAERMER shall apply a methodical integration of energy system optimisation on an urban level and agent-based modelling of individual investment behaviour including preferences and scope of action. It shall help identify the requirements for a successful transition of heat provision in the urban building stock towards CO2-neutrality. Building owners are surveyed about relevant factors of their investment decision making. In an iterative process, measures to incentivise individual investments can be developed and simulated as well as required adaptations to the technical energy system identified. The agent-based modelling explicitly considers the influence of energy consultants and craftspeople concerning their changing knowledge and recommendations.


2021Holzhauer, S., & Krebs, F. (2021). Managing flexibility in the distribution grid. In Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) (Ed.), 5th E-Mobility Power System Integration Symposium (EMOB 2021) (pp. 121–127). https://doi.org/10.1049/icp.2021.2514
2020Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., & Nölle, C. (2020). Simulating a Direct Energy Market: Products, Performance, and Social Influence. In H. Verhargen, M. Borit, G. Bravo, & N. Wijermans (Eds.), Advances in social simulation 2015 (pp. 233–238). Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-34127-5_21
2020Kocheril, G., Krebs, F., Nacken, L., & Holzhauer, S. (2020). Open and Integrative Modelling in Energy System Transitions - Conceptual Discussion about Model Reusability, Framework Requirements and Features. In 2019 SSC (Ed.), SSC2019 Proceedings (pp. 1–x). Springer.
2020Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., Schön, A., & Braun, M. (2020). Using Prosumer Flexibility through a Direct Energy Market. In D. Schulz (Ed.), NEIS 2020 - Conference on Sustainable Energy Supply and Energy Storage Systems Hamburg, 14 – 15 September 2020 (pp. 255–260). Berlin: VDE-Verlag.
2019Prasanna, A., Holzhauer, S., & Krebs, F. (2019). Overview of machine learning and data-driven methods in agent-based modeling of energy markets. In D. K., G. K., L. M., & S. G. (Eds.), INFORMATIK 2019: 50 Jahre Gesellschaft für Informatik – Informatik für Gesellschaft. Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V.. (pp. 571–584). https://doi.org/10.18420/inf2019_73
2019Nacken, L., Krebs, F., Fischer, T., & Hoffmann, C. (2019). Integrated renewable energy systems for Germany–A model-based exploration of the decision space. In IEEE (Ed.), 2019 16th International Conference on the European Energy Market (EEM) (pp. 1–8). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/EEM.2019.8916442
2018Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., Fischer, T., & Mackensen, R. (2018). Architekturmodelle und Datenkonzepte im multimodalen Energiesystem. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3072736
2017Krebs, F. (2017). An Empirically Grounded Model of Green Electricity Adoption in Germany: Calibration, Validation and Insights into Patterns of Diffusion. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 20(2), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.18564/jasss.3429
2017Krebs, F. (2017). Heterogeneity in individual adaptation action: Modelling the provision of a climate adaptation public good in an empirically grounded synthetic population. Journal of Environmental Psychology, (52), 119–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2016.03.006
2016Atzmüller, M., Ernst, A., Krebs, F., Flotmann-Scholz, C., Scholz, C., & Stumme, G. (2016). Formation and Temporal Evolution of Social Groups During Coffee Breaks. In M. Atzmueller, A. Chin, F. Janssen, I. Schweizer, & C. Trattner (Eds.), Postproceedings of the International Workshops MUSE & SenseML 2014, Nancy, France, and MSM 2014, Seoul, Korea (pp. 90–108). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29009-6_5
2014Atzmüller, M., Ernst, A., Krebs, F., Scholz, C., & Stumme, G. (2014). On the Evolution of Social Groups During Coffee Breaks. In International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee (Ed.), Proceedings of the Companion Publication of the 23rd International Conference on World Wide Web Companion (pp. 631–636). New York: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2567948.2579234
2013Krebs, F. (2013). Decision-Making in Public Good Dilemmas: Theory and Agent-Based Simulation. CESR, Kassel. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hebis:34-2013051442711
2013Ernst, A., Krebs, F., Pansa, R., & Holzhauer, S. (2013). Klimaanpassung in der nordhessischen Bevölkerung: Individuelle Wahrnehmung, Bereitschaft zur Anpassung und kollektive Dynamiken. In A. Roßnagel (Ed.), Regionale Klimaanpassung. Herausforderungen – Lösungen – Hemmnisse: Umsetzungen am Beispiel Nordhessens (pp. 569–591). Kassel: Kassel University Press.
2013Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., & Ernst, A. (2013). Considering baseline homophily when generating spatial social networks for agent-based modelling. Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 19, 128–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10588-012-9145-7
2013Roßnagel, A., Bauriedl, S., Hafner, S., Krebs, F., Mauritz, C., Pansa, R., Walther, M., & Weidlich, S. (2013). Evaluation der Governance-Innovationen in Nordhessen. In A. Roßnagel (Ed.), Regionale Klimaanpassung. Herausforderungen - Lösungen - Hemmnisse - Umsetzungen am Beispiel Nordhessens (pp. 687–720). Kassel: Kassell University Press.
2013Krebs, F., Holzhauer, S., & Ernst, A. (2013). Modelling the Role of Neighbourhood Support in Regional Climate Change Adaptation. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 6, 305–331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12061-013-9085-8
2012Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., & Ernst, A. (2012). Investigating Dynamics of Networks on Opinion Dynamics. In University of Salzburg (Ed.), Proceedings of the 8th European Social Simulation Association Conference (pp. 285–289). Salzburg.
2012Briegel, R., Ernst, A., Holzhauer, S., Klemm, D., Krebs, F., & Martínez Piñánez, A. (2012). Social-ecological modelling with LARA: A psychologically well-founded lightweight agent architecture. In R. Seppelt, A. A. Voinov, S. Lange, & D. Bankamp (Eds.), International Congress on Environmental Modelling and Software 2012. Managing Resources of a Limited Planet: Pathways and Visions under Uncertainty. Sixth Biennial Meeting (p. TBD). Leipzig.
2011Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., & Ernst, A. (2011). Considering baseline homophily when generating spatial social networks. In T. G. Kazakov D (Ed.), Proceedings of AISB  ’11: Social Networks and Multiagent Systems (pp. 20–26). York and UK: Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour. Retrieved from http://www.usf.uni-kassel.de/cesr/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=141&func=fileinfo&id=147
2011Krebs, F., Holzhauer, S., & Ernst, A. (2011). Public Good Provision in Large Populations: The Case of Neighbourhood Support in Northern Hesse. In social simulation association E (Ed.), Proceedings of ESSA’11 (p. TBD). Montpellier.
2010Krebs, F., & Ernst, A. (2010). The interplay of social orientation and social conformity in neighbourhood support. In K. S. Ernst A (Ed.), Proceedings of the 3rd World Congress of Social Simulation (p. TBD).
2009Holzhauer, S., Krebs, F., & Ernst, A. (2009). A Regional, Spatially Explicit Agent-Based Model of Individual Acceptance of Climate Change Adaptation Measures. In Proceedings of the 6th Conference of the European Social Simulation Association (p. TBD). Retrieved from http://www.usf.uni-kassel.de/cesr/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=147&func=fileinfo&id=130
2008Krebs, F., Elbers, M., & Ernst, A. (2008). Comparing the impact of different compensation policies on collective land reclamation. In {European social simulation association} Squazzoni F (Ed.), Proceedings of ESSA’08 (p. TBD).
2008Krebs, F., Elbers, M., & Ernst, A. (2008). Modelling the social and economic dimensions of farmer decision making under conditions of water stress. In Lou{çc}}{ã} J (Ed.), 1st ICC Workshop on Complexity in Social Systems (p. TBD). Lisbon.
2007Krebs, F., Elbers, M., & Ernst, A. (2007). Modelling social and economic influences on the decision making of farmers in the Odra region. In F. {European social simulation association} Amblard (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th European Social Simulation Association Conference (pp. 277–294). Toulouse: IRIT éd. Retrieved from http://www.usf.uni-kassel.de/cesr/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=119&func=fileinfo&id=108
2007Krebs, F., Zehnpfund, C., & Ernst, A. (2007). Dynamics of task oriented agent behaviour in multiple layer social networks. In S. D. Takahashi S (Ed.), Advancing Social Simulation: The First World Congress (pp. 319–330). Berlin: Springer Verlag. Retrieved from http://www.usf.uni-kassel.de/cesr/index.php?option=com_remository&Itemid=141&func=fileinfo&id=98
2002Simon, K.-H., Krebs, F., & Krebs, F. (2002). Die Rolle von Modellierungsansätzen bei der Erklärung, beim Verständnis und bei der Initiierung sozial-ökologischer Transformationen. In W. M. Balzer I (Ed.), Sozial-ökologische Forschung: Ergebnisse der Sondierungsprojekte aus dem BMBF-Förderschwerpunkt (pp. 389–407). München: ÖKOM-Verlag.
1997Krebs, F., & Bossel, H. (1997). Emergent value orientation in self-organization of an animat. Ecological Modelling, 96, 143–164. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(96)00050-6


09/2016The SPREAD model: Diffusion of green electricity in Germany
Krebs, Friedrich
“Social Simulation for the Energy Transition” associated to IST 2016 (www.ist2016.org)
Wuppertal Institut
09/2016A spatially explicit agent-based model of the diffusion of green electricity: Model setup and retrodictive validation
Krebs, Friedrich
The Eleventh Conference of the European Social Simulation Association
10/2015Policy modelling with agents
Krebs, Friedrich
Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit, Berlin
09/2015Towards an empirical validation of spatial patterns of simulated innovation diffusion
Krebs, Friedrich
Eleventh Artificial Economics Conference
01/2015 Krebs, Friedrich
09/2013 Krebs, Friedrich
06/2013 Ernst, Andreas; Krebs, Friedrich
03/2013 Krebs, Friedrich; Holzhauer, Sascha; Ernst, Andreas
07/2012 Briegel, Ramón; Ernst, Andreas; Holzhauer, Sascha; Klemm, Daniel; Krebs, Friedrich; Martínez Piñánez, Aldo
09/2011 Pansa, Ramune; Krebs, Friedrich
09/2010 Krebs, Friedrich; Ernst, Andreas
11/2010 Krebs, Friedrich; Ernst, Andreas


since 2017Team manager department Integrated Energy Systems
since 2017Researcher at Fraunhofer Institute for Energy Economics and Energy System Technology, Kassel
2013PhD in Computer Simulation and Psychology (Dr. phil.), University of Kassel
2005 - 2017Researcher at the Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), Kassel, Germany.
1995 - 2009Free lance consultant systems analysis, systems design database programming and administration
1995Degree in Mathematics and Computer Science (Dipl.-Math.). University of Kassel
1993 - 2000Database programmer, administrator and application developer (Oracle, PL/SQL, Oracle Developer) as assistant/freelancer at the Institute of Solar Energy Supply Systems , University of Kassel