Prof. em. Dr. Helmut Freitag

Former working group leader, currently associated to the working group and curator of the herbarium

Image: Helmut Freitag
Freitag, Helmut
University of Kassel
FB 10 / Institute for Biology
Department of Botany
Heinrich-Plett-Straße 40
34132 Kassel
AVZ III, Basement, Room 0449
Consultation Hours

Sprechstunde:  Di, Do 10.00-13.00

Fields of interest/focus of work

  • Systematics, anatomy, ecology and distribution of Chenopodiaceae, in particular Salsoloideae and Suaedoideae
  • Dito Ephedraceae
  • Biogeography of the Mediterranean, South-West and Central Asia

Scientific career

  • 1952-1955 Study of Biology, Chemistry and Geology at the University of Potsdam; Dr. rer. nat. with the thesis “Die Grünlandgesellschaften des Oberspreewaldes und ihre Beziehungen zum Wasserfaktor” (Grasslands of the Oberspreewald and their relations to water supply)
  • 1955-1959 Scientific employee at the Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Nature Conservancy Halle (E-Germany)
  • 1959-1961 Senior Researcher at the Academy of Science, Institute of Limnology Jena (E-Germany)
  • 1961-1966 Lecturer at the Institute of Botany, University of (Stuttgart-)Hohenheim
  • 1966-1971 Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Science, University of Kabul, Afghanistan
  • 1971 Habilitation with Venia Legendi in Botany at the University of Hohenheim with the thesis “Die natürliche Vegetation des südostspanischen Trockengebietes” (The natural vegetation of the arid regions in SE Spain)
  • 1971-1977 Assistant Professor at the Institute of Plant Taxonomy and Geobotany of the University of Goettingen
  • 1977-1997 Full Professor and head of the section Plant Taxonomy and Plant Morphology at the University of Kassel
  • 1997 Retirement, but continuing cooperation with the group, herbarium curator



Freitag H (2019): Comments on the Egyptian species of Ephedra L. (Ephedraceae). Catrina 19: 15-18.


Raetzel S, Freitag H, Uhlich H (2018): Phelipanche kelleri. Raabe-Strauch E. & Raus Th. (eds.), Euro+Med Checklist Notulae, 9. Willdenowia 48(2), pp. 210.

Mosyakin SL, Esser HJ, Freitag H (2018): The holotype of Chenopodium baryosmon (Chenopodiaceae) rediscovered: just one of many type specimens from the private herbarium of Schultes, now in the Turczaninow herbarium at KW. Phytotaxa 334(1): 49-54.


Falatoury AN, Iamonico D, Freitag H (2017): Nomenclature of Caroxylon imbricatum / Chenopodiaceae), with a new combination at variety rank. Phytotaxa 331(1): 101-108.

Lomonosova M, Freitag H (2017): Amaranthaceae. In Marhold K & Kučera J (ed.), IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 25, Taxon 66 (5), pp.1249-1250 + E21-23.

Freitag H, Lomonosova M (2017): Restoration of Suaeda sect. Helicilla (Chenopodiaceae) and typification of related taxa. Phytotaxa 323: 51-60.

Ángeles Alonso M, Crespo MB, Freitag H (2017): Salicornia cuszcoensis (Amaranthaceae/ Chenopodia-ceae), a new species from Peru (South America). Phytotaxa 319: 254-262.

Schüssler C, Freitag H, Kotoyeva N, Schmidt D, Edwards G, Voznesenskaya E, Kadereit G (2017): Molecular phylogeny and forms of photosynthesis in tribe Salsoleae (Chenopodiaceae). J Exp Bot 68/2): 207-222.

Mosyakin SL, Freitag H, Rilke S (2017): Kali versus Salsola: the instructive story of a questionable nomenclatural resurrection. Isr J Plant Sci 64, publ. online 27.3.2017.  


Freitag H, Großkurth A, Topp L (2016): Das Bunte Springkraut (Impatiens edgeworthii Hook.f.) jetzt auch in Hessen. Botanik u. Naturschutz in Hessen 29: 27-35.


Freitag H, Maier-Stolte M (2015): Ephedraceae. – Pp. 72 in P. Cuccuini et al.,The Libyan collections in FI and studies on the Libyan Flora by R. Pampanini. Bocconea 27(2).

Brandt R, Lomonosova M, Weising K, Wagner N, Freitag H (2015): Phylogeny and biogeography of Suaeda subg. Brezia (Chenopodiaceae / Amaranthaceae) in the Americas. Plant Syst Evol. 301: 2351-2375.

Iamonico D, Friis I., Jarvis CE, Freitag H (2015): Nomenclatural notes on the genus Pteranthus (Caryophyllaceae) with lectotypifications of the names Camphorosma pteranthus and Pteranthus trigynus, and comments on Forsskål’s seeds sent from Egypt. – Taxon 64: 816-821.

Freitag H, Iamonico D (2015): Lectotypification of the name Polycnemum majus (Amaranthaceae s.str.). Phytotaxa 202: 235-236.


Mosyakin SL, Rilke S, Freitag H (2014): (2323) Proposal to conserve the name Salsola (Chenopodiaceae s.str., Amaranthaceae sensu APG) with a conserved type. Taxon 63: 1134-1135.−

Kadereit G, Lauterbach M, Pirie M, Arafeh R, Freitag H (2014): When do different C4 leaf anatomies indicate independent C4 origins? – Parallel evolution of C4 leaf types in Camphorosmeae (Chenopodiaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 65: 3499-3511.

Freitag H, Sennikov A (2014): (2256) Proposal to conserve the name Salsola sedoides Pall. against S. sedoides L. (Amaranthaceae / Chenopodiaceae). Taxon 63 (3): 186-187.  

Sennikov A, Freitag H (2014): The nomenclatural history of Salsola sedoides L. and Salsola sedoides Pall. (Suaedoideae and Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae /Amaranthaceae). Taxon 63 (1): 151-160.


Kakiuchi N, Higuchi M, Tanaka S, Nishikawa K, Kamikawa S, Ohtsuka I, Freitag H (2013): Phylogenetic study on Ephedra plants related to Ephedra sinica by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spaces 2 region (ITS2) in nuclear ribosomal DNA. J Kyushu Univ. of Health and Welfare 14: 169-172.

Brandt R, Lomonosova M, Freitag H, Kucev M, Weising K (2013): Evolution of the Suaeda corniculata group (Chenopodiaceae) in Eurasia based on molecular phylogeny and caryology. Pp. 263-264 in Sovremennaya Botanika v Rossii. Trudy 13. s’ezda Russk. Bot. Obsh. (Togliatti 16-22 sept.2013). Kassandra Togliatti.

Freitag H (2013): Ephedraceae. Pp. 114-115 in Freitag H, Breckle SW, Hedge IC, Rafiqpoor MD, Checklist Flora of Afghanistan. Bonn (Scientia Bonnensis).

Freitag H (2013): Chenopodiaceae. Pp. 261-274 in Freitag H, Breckle, SW, Hedge IC, Rafiqpoor MD, Checklist Flora of Afghanistan. Bonn (Scientia Bonnensis).

Freitag H, Brandt R, Chatrenoor T, Akhani H (2013): Suaeda iranshahrii, a new species of Suaeda subgenus Brezia (Chenopodiaceae) from the Persian Gulf coasts. Rostaniha 14(1): 68-80.

Freitag H, Kadereit G (2013): C3 and C4 leaf anatomy types in Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae). Plant Syst. Evol.: 300 (4): 665-687.

Dickoré WB, Schloeder C, Jacobs M, Spribille T, Freitag H (2013): Ochotonophila flava (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from Central Afghanistan. Edinb. J. Bot. 70(3): 405-412.  


Kakiuchi N, Mikage M, Ickert-Bond S, Maier-Stolte M, Freitag H (2011): A molecular phylogenetic study of the Ephedra distachya/E. sinica complex in Eurasia. – Willdenowia 41: 203-215.

Lomonosova M, Freitag H (2011): Typification of plant names in Suaedoideae (Chenopodiaceae) described by P. Pallas, C.A. Meyer and A. Bunge. – Willdenowia 41: 217-229.

Freitag H (2011): Typification of Salicornia perennans Willd. (Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae)and the significance of names by Pallas. – Willdenowia 41: 231-237.

Kadereit G, Freitag H (2011): Molecular phylogeny of Camphorosmeae (Camphorosmoideae, Chenopodiaceae): implications for biogeography, evolution of C4 photosynthesis and taxonomy. – Taxon 60/1: 51-78.

Uotila P, Freitag H (2011): Chenopodiaceae. – Pp. 129 in Greuter W, Raab-Straube E. (eds),

Notulae ad floram euro-mediterraneam pertinentes No. 27 (Euro+Med Notulae 5). (2011) Willdenowia 41(1).


Freitag H, Lomonosova M (2010): Suaeda. – In Schnittler M, Zemmrich A, Starke S, Virtual Flora of Mongolia). – published online by

Freitag H, Hedge IC, Rafiqpoor MD, Breckle SW (2010): Flora and Vegetation Geography of Afghanistan. – Pp. 79-115 in Breckle S-W, Dittmann A, Rafiqpoor MD, Field Guide Afghanistan. Bonn (Scientia Bonnensis).

Freitag H (2010): Ephedraceae. – Pp. 196-201 in Breckle S-W, Dittmann A, Rafiqpoor MD, Field Guide Afghanistan. Bonn (Scientia Bonnensis)

Freitag H (2010): Chenopodiaceae. – Pp. 374-413 in Breckle S-W, Dittmann A, Rafiqpoor MD, Field Guide Afghanistan. Bonn (Scientia Bonnensis).


Lomonosova M, Freitag H (2009): Chenopodiaceae. In Marhol K, Breitwieser I (eds), IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 8. Taxon 58: 1284.

Freitag H, Atamov V, Cetin E, Aslan M (2009): The genus Halothamnus Jaub. & Spach in Turkey. − Turk J Bot 33: 325-334.

Freitag H, Maier-Stolte M (2009): Ephedraceae. – In Schnittler M, Zemmrich A, Starke S., Virtual Flora of Mongolia (equivalent to c. 10 pages). – published online by


Lomonosova M, Brandt R, Freitag H (2008): Suaeda corniculata (Chenopodiaceae) and related new taxa from Siberia. – Willdenowia 38: 81-109.

Lomonosova M, Freitag H (2008): The genua Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) in Asian Russia. − Rastitel´n Mira Aziatsk Ross 2: 12-19.

Akopian J, Gabrielyan I, Freitag H (2008): Fossil fruits of Salsola L. s.l. and Halanthium K. Koch (Chenopodiaceae) from Lower Pleistocene lacustrine sediments in Armenia. – Fedd Repert 119: 225-236.


Voznesenskaya EV, Chuong SDX, Koteyeva NK, Franceschi VR, Freitag H (2007): Structural, biochemical and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae). − Plant Biology 9: 745-757.

Kadereit G, Ball P, Beer S, Mucina L, Sokoloff D, Teege P, Yaprak AE, Freitag H (2007): A taxonomic nightmare becomes true: phylogeny and biogeography of glassworts (Salicornia L., Chenopodiaceae). - Taxon 56: 1143-1170.

Weising K, Freitag H (2007): Phylogeography of halophytes from European coastal and inland habitats. - Zool. Anz. 246: 279-292.

Danin A, and Freitag H (2007): Beta adanensis Aellen. − In Greuter W, Raus, Th, Med-Checklist Notulae 26. – Willdenowia 37: 436.


Kadereit G, Mucina L, Freitag H (2006): Phylogeny of Salicornioideae (Chenopodiaceae): diversification, biogeography, and evolutionary trends in leaf and flower morphology. – Taxon 55: 617-642.

Freitag H, Lomonosova M (2006): Typification and identity of Suaeda crassifolia, S. prostrata and S. salsa: three often confused species of Suaeda sect. Brezia (Suaedoideae, Chenopodiaceae). – Willdenowia 36: 21-36.

Freitag H (2006): Physiognomische Anpassungen von Laubblättern an Umweltbedingungen. – Naturwiss. Rundsch. 59: 310-311.


Kadereit G, Gotzek D, Jacobs S, Freitag H (2005): Origin and age of Australian Chenopodiaceae. – Organisms, Div, Evol. 5: 59-80.

Freitag H (2005): New morphological characters help in classification of Chenopodiaceae. – 17th Intern. Bot. Congr. 17-23 June 2005 Vienna, Abstr. Vol. p. 233.

Schütze P, Weising K, Freitag H (2005): Phylogeny and C4 evolution in the genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) and related taxa. – Ibid., Abstr. Vol. P. 223.


Freitag H, Maier-Stolte M (2003): The genus Ephedra in NE Tropical Africa. – Kew Bull 58: 415-426.

Lomonosova M, Freitag H (2003): A new species of Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) from the Altai. – Willdenowia 33: 139-147.

Schütze P, Freitag H, Weising K (2003): An integrated molecular and morphological study on Suaedoideae Ulbr. (Chenopodiaceae). – Pl Syst Evol 239: 257-286.

Kadereit G, Borsch T, Weising K, Freitag H (2003): Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. – Int. J Pl Sci 164: 959-986.


Freitag H, Stichler W (2002): Bienertia cycloptera Bunge ex Boiss., Chenopodiaceae, another C4 plant without Kranz tissues. – Plant Biol. 4: 121-131.

Voznesenskaya EV, Franceschi VR, Kiirats O, Artyusheva EG, Freitag H, Edwards G (2002): Proof of C4 photosynthesis without Kranz anatomy in Bienertia cycloptera (Chenopodiaceae). – The Plant J 31: 649-662.


Freitag H (2001): Salsola. - In Ali SI., Qaiser M (eds): Flora of Pakistan 204, 127-178. – Karachi University Press.

Freitag H (2001): Suaeda. - In Ali SI, Qaiser M (eds): Flora of Pakistan 204, 104-126. – Karachi University Press.

Freitag H, Golub V B, Yuritsina NA (2001): Halophytic plant communities in the northern Caspian lowlands: 1, annual halophytic communities. – Phytocoenologia 31: 63-108.

Caveney St, Charlet DA, Freitag H, Maier-Stolte M, Starrat AN (2001): New observations on the secondary chemistry of World Ephedra (Ephedraceae). – Am J Bot 88: 1199-1208.

Voznesenskaya EV, Franceschi VR, Kiirats O, Freitag H, Edwards G (2001): Kranz anatomy is not essential for terrestrial C4 plant photosynthesis. – Nature 414: 543-546.


Freitag H , Paul A (1994): Quellen und Quellvegetation im Landkreis Kassel. Naturschutz Nordhessen 14: 11-19.


Freitag H (1991): The Chenopodiaceae of Pakistan – an assessment of present knowledge. – Pp: 73-93 in Ali SI, Ghaffar A. (eds), Plant Life of South Asia. Karachi. Shamin Printing Press.


Freitag H (1986): Notes on distribution, climate, and flora of the sand deserts in Iran and Afghanistan. Proceed. Roy Soc Edinburgh 89B: 135-146.

Freitag H Maier-Stolte M (1986): On the identification and distribution of some Ephedra species in C-Iran and Afghanistan. Proceed. Roy Soc Edinburgh 89B: 310.

Freitag H Maier-Stolte M, Stiegemeyer M (1986): Die Fruchtflügel in den Gattungen Salsola L. und Halothamnus Spach (Chenopodiaceae). Beitr Biol Pflanzen 61: 87-98.


Freitag H (1985): The genus Stipa (Gramineae) in Southwest and South Asia. Not Ro. Bot Gard. Edinburgh 42: 355-489.


Freitag H (1983): Astragalus kavirensis, eine neue Art von Astragalus sect. Ammodendron (Leguminosae) aus dem Iran. Willdenowia 13: 133-136.


Freitag H (1982): Mediterranean characters of the vegetation in the Hindukush Mts., and the relationship between sclerophyllous and laurophyllous forests. Mediterranea 8: 381-388.


Freitag H (1980): Vegetation. – In Spooner B et al.: Case study on desertification – Iran: Touran. – Pp. 188-190, 196-199, 243-245, vegetation map, In Biswas MR et Biswas AK (eds), Desertification. Environmental sciences and applications 12. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Freitag H, Kuhle M (1980): A plant list from the Kuh-e-Jupar (SE-Iran), with some ecological remarks. Willdenowia 10: 161-169.

Freitag H. Podlech D (1980): Zwei neue Astragalus-Arten aus dem Touran-Schutzgebiet im Iran. Mitt Bot Staatssammlungen München 16: 7-10.


Freitag H (1978): A supplement to W. van Zeist & S. Bottema, Palynological investigation in Western Iran. – Palaeohistoria 19: 87-95.


Freitag H (1977): Amygdalus wendelboi (Rosaceae), a new species from Southern Iran. – Iran J Bot 1: 117-120.


Freitag H (1976): Flora und Vegetation. – Pp. 66-77 in Usman Malik M, Schimmel A. (eds.),Pakistan. – Erdmann, Tübingen/Basel.


Freitag H (1975): The genus Piptatherum P.B., Gramineae, in Southwest Asia. – Not Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh 33: 341-408.

Freitag H (1975): Zum Konkurrenzverhalten von Quercus ilex und Quercus pubescens unter mediterran-humidem Klima. – Bot Jahrb Syst 96: 53-70.

Freitag H (1975): Distribution pattern in the genera Piptatherum and Stipa and their significance for the geobotanical subdivision of SW–Asia. – Pp. 112 in 12. Intern. Bot. Congr. Abstr., Izd. Nauka, Leningrad.


Freitag H, Meher-Homji VM, Gupta RK (1973): Bibliography on „Plant-Ecology in Afghanistan. – Excerpta Bot, Sect B 12: 310-315.


Freitag H (1972): Interesting and new Lamiaceae and Capparidaceae from Afghanistan. – Not Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh 31: 351-357.

Freitag H (1972): Neue Arten aus Afghanistan: Amygdalus browiczii und Leontice silvatica. – Bot Jahrb Syst 91: 470-477.

Freitag H (1972): Flora und Vegetation. – Pp. 50-67 in Kraus W. (ed.), Afghanistan. – Erdmann, Tübingen/Basel.

Freitag H Riedl H (1972): Drei neue Boraginaceeen-Species der Flora von Afghanistan. – Oesterr Bot Z 120: 137-142.


Freitag H (1971): Die natürliche Vegetation Afghanistans. Beiträge zur Flora und Vegetation Afghanistans I. – Vegetatio (Den Haag) 22: 285-344.

Freitag H (1971): Studies in the natural vegetation of Afghanistan. – Pp. 89-106 in Davis P et al., Plant Life of South-West Asia. – Univ. Press Aberdeen,

Freitag H (1971): Die natürliche Vegetation des südostspanischen Trockengebietes. – Bot Jahrb Syst 91: 147-308.

Freitag H (1971): Zur Kenntnis afghanischer Plumbaginaceen. – Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 75: 67-75.


Freitag H, Wendelbo P (1970): The genus Bellevalia in Afghanistan. – Isr J Bot (Jerusalem) 19: 220-224.


Freitag H (1968): Über den Fund von Enneapogon persicus Boiss. in Spanien. – Collect Bot (Barcelona) 7: 483-493.

1966 (1967, 1970)

Freitag H, Schwaeble F (1966): Wiesenblumen und Ackerblumen. – Belser, Stuttgart, 256 p. Dutch transl. 1967: Weidebloemen en akkerbloemen. – Gebr. Zomer & Keunings, Wageningen; French transl. 1970: Fleur des prés et des champs. – Hatier, Paris.


Freitag H (1964): Die Waldgesellschaften der Rouvière bei Montarnaud. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Vegetation des Languedoc. Pp. 155-189 in Kreeb KH (ed.), Beiträge zur Phytologie (Festschr. H. Walter)  – G. Fischer, Stuttgart.

Freitag H, Krausch HD (1964): Vegetationskarte des Großen Stechlin-Sees. Limnologica (Berlin) 2


Freitag H (1962): Flora und Vegetation des Stechlin-Sees (vorl. Mitt.). Mitt Flor-soz Arbeitsgem (Stolzenau/Weser) NF 9: 261-264.

Freitag H (1962): Einführung in die Biogeographie von Mitteleuropa. – G. Fischer, Stuttgart, 214 p.

Freitag H, Krausch HD (1962): Vegetationskarte des Oberspreewaldes 1:40.000. – Velhagen & Klasing, Leipzig/Jena.


Freitag H (1958): Die Grünlandgesellschaften des Oberspreewaldes und ihre Beziehungen zum Standort, insbesondere zum Wasserfaktor. – Diss. Päd. Hochschule Potsdam.

Freitag H, Körtge U (1958): Die Pflanzengesellschaften des Zarth bei Treuenbrietzen. Beitr Flora und Vegetation Brandenburgs 20. – Wiss Z Päd Hochschule Potsdam, Math-Nat Reihe 4: 29-53.

Freitag H, Markus Ch, Schwippl I (1958): Die Wasser- und Sumpfpflanzengesellschaften im Magdeburger Urstromtal südlich des Fläming. Beitr. Flora und Vegetation Brandenburgs 22. – Wiss Z Päd Hochschule Potsdam, Math-Nat Reihe 4: 65-92.


Freitag H (1957): Floristische Beobachtungen in Südwest- und Südost-Brandenburg. Verh Bot Vereins Prov Brandenburg (Berlin): 83-97.

Freitag H (1957): Stipa pennata L. und Anemone pulsatilla L. im Hohen Fläming. Beitr Flora und Vegetation Brandenburgs 16. – Wiss Z Päd Hochschule Potsdam, Math-Nat Reihe 3: 115-116.

Freitag H (1957): Vegetationskundliche Beobachtungen an Grünland-Gesellschaften im Nieder-Oderbruch. Beitr Flora und Vegetation Brandenburgs 18. – Ibid. 3: 125-139.

Freitag H, Müller-Stoll WR (1957): Beiträge zur bestandesklimatischen Analyse von Wiesengesellschaften (Untersuchungen im Ober-Spreewald). – Angew. Meteorologie (Berlin) 3: 16-30.