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Translation of the scale from Oreg (2003). For evidence on validity and factor structure, see Oreg (Oreg et al., 2008). Individual items must be adapted to the context of measurement (er9). For more information on the scale, see (Oreg, 2003).


Dispositional resistance to change questionnaire.



Oreg, S. (2003). Resistance to change: developing an individual difference measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 680-693.

Oreg, S., Bayazit, M., Vakola, M., Arciniega, L., Armenakis, A., Barkauskiene, R., ... Ohly, S.,. . . van Dam, K. (2008). Dispositional resistance to change: measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 935-944.

The questionnaire items were developed using recommendations from Lee & Bobko, (1994). The most important difference to earlier job self-efficacy measurement instruments is the reference to specific work tasks. More information on the scale at Ohly & Fritz, (2007).

Job Self-Efficacy Questionnaire


  • Lee, C., & Bobko, P. (1994). Self-efficacy beliefs: comparison of five measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(3), 364-369.
  • Ohly, S., & Fritz, C. (2007). Challenging the status quo: What motivates proactive behavior? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 80, 623-629.

Measurement of innovative behavior (Innovative Behavior Measure) from Ohly et al., 2006

Further information on the English page


  • Ohly, S., Sonnentag, S., & Pluntke, F. 2006. routinization, work characteristics, and their relationships with creative and proactive behaviors. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27: 257-279.

  • Zhou, J., & George, J. M. 2001. When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 682-696.