The quantum vacuum is a region of space from which electromagnetic fields have been removed as completely as possible. However, quantum electrodynamics predicts unavoidable field fluctuations -- virtual photons, which are spontaneously created and annihilated.
Our group investigates the consequences of this intriguing concept on the basis of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics (QED).
Constitutive relations: magneto-electric media
Quantised electric field: